eK0n0mi taK seriU$ d/h ekonomitakserius@blogspot.com

Februari 3, 2017

jatuHAT1: hipoglisin, ati2

Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY,Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 1:47 am

TEMPO.CO, New Delhi—Setiap tahun selama lebih dari dua dekade terakhir, 100 anak tewas di bagian utara India.

Misteri ini membuat otoritas kesehatan India dan para orang tua resah, karena penyebabnya belum juga ditemukan.

Baca: Serunya Perang Twitter J.K Rowling vs Pendukung Donald Trump

Sebelum tewas, anak-anak di Negara Bagian Bihar ini tiba-tiba mengalami kejang-kejang dan kehilangan kesadaran.

 

Namun penyebab kematian tragis itu akhirnya terkuak awal bulan ini.

Seperti dilansir BBC, Jumat 3 Februari 2017, peneliti Amerika Serikat dan India sepakat bahwa kematian para bocah itu disebabkan karena mereka memakan buah leci saat perut masih kosong.

Penelitian terbaru yang dimuat dalam jurnal kesehatan bergengsi, The Lancet, menegaskan temuan yang menyatakan para korban keracunan leci.

Sebagian besar korban, kata The Lancet, merupakan anak-anak dari keluarga miskin yang memakan buah leci yang jatuh di tanah. Bihar merupakan daerah penghasil leci di India.

“Leci memiliki racun bernama hipoglisin, yang menahan tubuh dari memproduksi glukosa. Hal ini sangat berdampak buruk bagi para korban yang tingkat gula darahnya sudah sangat rendah karena tidak makan malam,” demikian tulis The Lancet.

Anak-anak ini akan menjerit di malam hari sebelum mengalami kejang-kejang dan tidak sadarkan diri, karena mengalami pembengkakan otak secara tiba-tiba.

Temuan ini diperoleh setelah para peneliti memeriksa anak-anak yang selamat di rumah sakit Muzaffarpur antara Mei-Juli 2014. Kondisi para korban ternyata sama dengan insiden yang terjadi sebelumnya di Karibia.

Wabah di Karibia dipicu oleh buah lokal bernama ackee. Buah ini mengandung racun hipoglisin, persis seperti yang ditemukan di dalam buah leci.

Hasil penelitian ini menjadi dasar pengumuman Kementerian Kesehatan yang meminta para orang tua memastikan anak mereka makan terlebih dulu dan membatasi buah leci yang dikonsumsi.

Anak-anak yang terkena sindrom ini harus ditangani sebagai pasien hipoglikemia atau tekanan gula darah rendah.

Sejak kasus ini berhasil dipecahkan, jumlah anak yang meninggal di Karibia turun drastis.

BBC | THE NEW YORK TIMES | SITA PLANASARI AQUADINI

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e-medicine: Background

Ackee, the national fruit of Jamaica, is a food staple in many Jamaican diets. The fruit is rich in essential fatty acids, vitamin A, zinc, and protein. [1, 2] Consumption of unripe ackee fruit, however, can lead to potentially fatal toxicity, known as Jamaican vomiting sickness.

The word “ackee” originated from the Twi language. The ackee tree is a tropical evergreen tree that can grow as tall as 40 feet. Its leaves are broad and pinnate; its approximately 10-cm wide, 100-g fruit may be colored anywhere from straw to bright red. The fruit splits open while still on the tree to reveal three glassy black seeds surrounded by a thick, oily, yellow aril. (See the images below.)The fruit should be allowed to open and ripen naturally on the tree.

The ackee tree is indigenous to West Africa, where it is called ankye or ishin. Thomas Clarke, Jamaica’s first botanist, introduced the plant to the island in 1778. However, the ackee tree, Blighia sapida, was named after the infamous Captain William Bligh who took the breadfruit tree to the West Indies. The tree also grows in other West Indian Islands such as Cuba, Haiti and Barbados, in Central America, and in Southern Florida. [3]

An association between ackee poisoning and Jamaican vomiting sickness was first noted in 1875 and documented in 1904. In 1937, Jordan and Burrows found a water-soluble toxic material in the seed and pods of the ackee fruit. In 1954, Hassal et al were the first to isolate two toxic compounds in their crystalline form. These compounds were called hypoglycin A and hypoglycin B because of their hypoglycemic activity.

Two toxic water-soluble substances can be extracted from the fruit. The first toxin, hypoglycin A, is L-α -amino-β -[methylene cyclopropyl]propionic acid. Hypoglycin B is a γ -L-glutamyl derivative of hypoglycin A and is less toxic than hypoglycin A. Hypoglycin A, but not hypoglycin B, can be found in the aril of the fruit. The unripe fruit has a much higher concentration of hypoglycin A (approximately 20 times) than that of the ripe aril. Both components are found in the seeds. Therefore, the seeds and the membrane at the base of the seed mantle are always poisonous.

Hypoglycin A, which is now simply called hypoglycin, is metabolized by means of transamination and oxidative decarboxylation to methylene cyclopropyl acetic acid (MCPA). MCPA forms nonmetabolizable carnitine and coenzyme A (CoA) esters, thereby depressing tissue levels of these cofactors and making them less available for other biochemical reactions. Hypoglycemia results because both CoA and carnitine are necessary cofactors for long-chain fatty acid oxidation and because oxidation is a requisite for active gluconeogenesis. MCPA also inhibits the dehydrogenation of several acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, including butyryl CoA, glutaryl CoA, and isovaleryl CoA. As a result of the inhibition of butyryl CoA dehydrogenase, the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids stops at the level of hexanoyl CoA and butyryl CoA. This effect leads to the decreased production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and acetyl CoA.

Because NADH and acetyl CoA are required as a cofactor of 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase and as an activator of pyruvate carboxylase, respectively, their diminished concentration contributes to the inhibition of gluconeogenesis. The inhibition of glutaryl CoA dehydrogenase results in the accumulation of glutaryl CoA, which could inhibit transmitochondrial malate transport, a rate-limiting step in the early phase of gluconeogenesis, and consequently suppress gluconeogenesis. Altered levels of circulating insulin do not cause hypoglycemia associated with hypoglycin action.

Frequency

United States

Ackee is illegal in the United States; therefore, underreporting may occur. To date, 2 cases of ackee poisoning have been reported in the United States. The first was in Ohio in a Jamaican woman who presented with Jamaican vomiting sickness after a meal of ackee fruit. The second was in Connecticut in a young Jamaican man who presented with cholestatic jaundice secondary to the chronic ingestion of ackee fruit.

International

The epidemiology of ackee poisoning has not been well characterized, and the true incidence and mortality rate are believed to be underreported. At the request of the Jamaican Ministry of Health (JMH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) identified 38 cases of Jamaican vomiting sickness and 6 deaths from 1989-1991. This problem is endemic in Jamaica; 271 cases have been reported to the JMH since 1980.

In 1998, an unexplained outbreak of epidemic fatal encephalopathy (EFE) occurred in Burkina Faso in West Africa. The only factor associated with EFE was the presence of ackee trees within 100 m of the households. The consumption of unripe ackee fruit possibly caused this epidemic.

In late 2000, the CDC provided technical support to the Ministry of Health in Haiti during an outbreak of ackee poisoning in the northern region of that country. [4, 5]More than 100 cases of acute illness and death were reported.

From 1998-2001, reports detailed 16 deaths of children in Surinam along the River Maroni, which separates Surinam and French Guyana. The deaths were subsequently linked to ackee fruit poisoning as result of the misuse of the plant by Maroon witch doctors to “cure” some pathologies especially acute forms of diarrhea in children. [6]

Mortality/Morbidity

Before treatments were developed, the mortality rate was as high as 80%. No deaths from ackee fruit poisoning have been reported in the United States. In Jamaica, 6 deaths were reported in 1989-1991. A link between ackee fruit poisoning and unexplained deaths of preschool children in West Africa has been postulated.

Race

Ackee is consumed mostly in West Africa and Jamaica; therefore, most cases have occurred in blacks.

Sex

No difference in the sex distribution is noted.

Age

In Jamaica, the annual rate of ackee poisoning is 2 cases per 100,000 persons younger than 15 years and 0.4 case per 100,000 persons older than 15 years.

THE ACKEE FRUIT (BLIGHIA SAPIDA) AND ITS ASSOCIATED TOXIC EFFECTS

Introduction
The islands of the Caribbean account for less than 0.03% of the world’s landmass and are enriched with a wide variety of flora and fauna. More than 2% of the world’s total number of plant and vertebrate species are endemic there [1]. Due to the regions rich diversity of flora and fauna, there is increasing interest in the isolation of natural products which have been found to possess a wide range of interesting biological activities. Hypoglycin A, an unusual amino acid, was initially isolated from the ackee fruit and has been the focus of many years of research due to its ability to significantly reduce blood glucose levels and induce hypoglycemia.

The Ackee Fruit
The ackee is a tropical fruit belonging to the Sapindaceae family. It has its origin in West Africa but has traversed the Atlantic Ocean making the Caribbean its home. Its exact date of arrival is unknown but it is believed that the fruit was transported to the Caribbean by slave ships sometime around the 18th century. The trivial name ackee, is derived from the terms “anke” and “akye-fufuo” which are used to describe the fruit in West Africa. The fruit was named Blighia sapida in honor of the infamous Captain William Bligh of Mutiny on the Bounty who transported the fruit from Jamaica to England in 1793 [2].

Consumption of the ackee is mainly in Jamaica, Haiti and some parts of West Africa. In Jamaica, the fruit serves as a major component of the national dish ackee and codfish. There, the fruit is also processed in brine, canned and exported earning over US $13 million annually. The fruit is divided into three major sections, the pod, the seed and the edible portion, the arilli. (Figure 1)

 

The fruit while beautiful in appearance is not as harmless as it seems. Its intense red color may well allude to the dangers involved in consuming the immature fruit. The ackee has been the cause of widespread epidemics both in Jamaica and in West Africa. From as early as the 19th century there were speculations that the fruit may be toxic. It was not until 1955, however, that the actual causative factor of its toxicity was elucidated.

Jamaican Vomiting Sickness
Between the years 1880 – 1955, there evolved an illness that was found predominantly in Jamaica [3]. The illness was accompanied by severe bouts of vomiting and was named Jamaican Vomiting Sickness (JVS). JVS is also referred to as Toxic Hypoglycemic Syndrome and is associated with severe disturbances in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Clinical features of the illness include vomiting, abdominal pain, depletion of hepatic glycogen, hypoglycemia, aciduria, coma and in severe cases death [4].

In 1955 the causative factor of JVS was isolated, a non proteinogenic amino acid, hypoglycin A, so named due to its ability to induce severe hypoglycemia [5]. Its chemical structure was elucidated in 1958 and scientifically it is referred to as L-alpha-amino-beta-methylene cyclopropane propionic acid [6]. (Figure 2)

 

Figure 2.There were several difficulties encountered by researchers in identifying the causative factor of JVS. The ackee is eaten by many without ill effects. It was therefore not thought to be the likely source of the illness. Hypoglycin A is found predominantly in the immature fruit. Concentrations within the arilli ranges from over 1000 ppm in the immature fruit to less than 0.1 ppm in the fully mature fruit [7]. Ill effects occur only when the immature fruit is consumed.

Metabolism of Hypoglycin A
Thorough investigation of the toxicity associated with hypoglycin A revealed that the actual causative agent of JVS is a metabolite of hypoglycin A called methylenecyclopropane acetyl CoA (MCPA-CoA). Hypoglycin A is transaminated to methylenecyclopropyl-alanine (MCPA) and subsequently undergoes oxidative decarboxylation to form MCPA-CoA [8]. MCPA-CoA exerts its effect by inhibiting several coenzyme A dehydrogenases which are essential for gluconeogenesis [9]. Depletion of glucose reserves and the inability of cells to regenerate glucose leads to hypoglycemia.

 

Figure 3. Metabolism of Hypoglycin A [8]Fruit Maturity
The ackee takes seven to eight weeks to attain full maturity. During weeks two through three of fruit development, the fruit doubles in size after which the fruit increases at a much slower rate [10]. At full maturity the fruits are pear shaped and acquire a red or a yellow tinge with red coloration. The pods then open revealing the seeds and 3 fleshy arilli. (Figure 4) Fruits are safe for consumption only at this stage of maturity.

 

It has been hypothesized that during fruit maturity hypoglycin A is translocated from the arilli to the seeds of the fruit. There it is converted to the dipeptide hypoglycin B. (Figure 5) As the fruit matures, the concentration of hypoglycin B increases from 0.4 mg/g to 3.3 mg/g [11]. Hypoglycin B is only found in the seeds of the fruit. It also possesses hypoglycemic activity but is less potent than hypoglycin A.

Recent Reports of Ackee Intoxication
In recent years, there have been reported incidences of toxic hypoglycemic syndrome in Burkina Faso, The Ivory Coast, Togo and Benin. Lethality was 100% in the Burkina Faso epidemic and victims of the illness were all children [12]. Deaths were linked to ackee intoxication due to enhanced concentrations of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of the victims. Suggestions have been made that the ingestion of unripe ackee fruits may be responsible for a substantial number of unexplained deaths in preschool children in West Africa [13]. Children are the most susceptible to the illness and there appears to be ignorance with regards to the toxic nature of the immature fruit. Ongoing educational campaigns are of utmost importance for the total eradication of this deadly syndrome.

Treatment of Hypoglycin A Toxicity
There is no standard method of treating toxic hypoglycemic syndrome. Care has been focused on relieving symptoms and providing supportive care. Early sugar and glucose administration is also recommended. Other treatments to relieve symptoms of the ailment include the use of antiemetics to control vomiting, gastrointestinal decontaminants, dextrose and glucose stimulators and benzodiazepines to control seizures [14]. The administration of riboflavin and glycine have also been reported to antagonize the effects of hypoglycin A intoxication [15]. It is believed that riboflavin stimulates the de novo synthesis of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases while glycine conjugates with excess dicarboxylic acids produced due to impaired lipid metabolism [16].

Analysis and Quantification of Hypoglycin A
In earlier years, the analysis and quantification of hypoglycin A was difficult and time consuming due to co-elution problems with the amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine. Ion exchange amino acid analysis was limited by the fact that amino acids with similar solubility and chromatographic properties to hypoglycin A caused problems in resolution. Different analytical techniques have been utilized to solve this problem and include fluorimetry, spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC is currently the method of choice for hypoglycin A quantification. It presents a rapid, reliable and reproducible means of quantifying the amino acid. Hypoglycin A is first derivatized and subsequently analyzed on a reversed-phase liquid chromatography system. Two derivatizing agents are currently being used, O-phthalaldehyde (OPA) and phenylisothiocyanate (PITC). This method of quantifying hypoglycin A was initially developed in 1989 through collaborative efforts between the Jamaica Bureau of Standard and the University of Florida [17]. The Pico-Tag method which utilizes phenylisothiocyanate as the derivatizing agent was developed by a research group in Canada [18]. Currently, low nanogram quantities of the analyte may be detected.

Other Metabolites in the Ackee Fruit
A number of other metabolites have been isolated from the ackee fruit. While not as biologically interesting, the compounds are unusual in their structure. Blighinone, a sparingly soluble quinone was isolated from the arilli of the fruit [19]. Vomifoliol, has been isolated from the leaves and stems of the plant and has been implicated in the endogenous regulation of stomatal aperture [20]. (Figure 6)


Figure 6More recently, another non-proteinogenic amino acid (2S, 1’S, 2’S)-2-(2’-carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (CCG 1), was isolated from the fruit [21]. It is similar in structure to hypoglycin A with respect to the presence of a cycopropane ring structure which is a rare occurrence in nature (Figure 7).


Figure 7Conclusion:
The plants found in the Caribbean continue to be a rich store house of interesting biological molecules. The ackee serves as one such example and has played an intriguing role in the history of the Caribbean. It has sparked the interest of a number of researchers in Jamaica and internationally. Research on this unusual fruit continues as well as other plants in the region with the hope of finding other biologically active components which may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of various diseases.

References

1. Yarnell, A. Chemical and Engineering News, 2004, 82, 33.

2. Lewis, C. B. Information Bulletin of the Scientific Research Council 1965, 1, 12-14.

3. Feng, P. C. West Indian Med. J. 1969, 18, 238-243.

4. Tanaka, K. and Ikeda, Y., Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 1990, 321,167-184.

5. Hassall, C. H. and Reyle K. West Indian Med. J. 1955, 4, 83-90.

6. Carbon, J. A., Martin, W. B. and Swett, L. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1958, 80, 1002.

7. Brown, M., Bates, R. P., McGowan, C. and Cornel, J. A. J. Food Saf. 1992, 12, 167-177.

8. Von Holt, C. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1966, 125, 1-10.

9. Von Holt, C., Von Holt, M. and Bohm, H. Biochim Biophys Acta 1966, 125, 11-21.

10. Stair, M. A. and Sidrak, G. Jagrist 1992, 4, 10-13.

11. Kean, E. A. and Hare E. R. Phytochemistry 1980, 19, 199-203.

12. Barennes, H., Valea, I., Boudat, A. M., Idle, J. R. and Nagot, N. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2004, 42, 809-825.

13. Meda, H. A., Diallo, B., Buchet, J. P., Lison, D., Barennes, H., Ouangre, A., Sanou, M., Cousens, S., Tall, F. and Perre, P.van-de The Lancet 1999, 353, 536- 540.

14. eMedicine, Holson, D. Toxicity, Plants – Ackee Fruit.

15. Duff, D.A., Price, S.C. and Snell, K. Biochem. Soc. Trans.1980, 8, 574-575.

16. Al-Bassam, S.S and Sherratt, H.S.A. (1981) Biochem. Pharmac.1981, 30, 2817-2824.

17. McGowan, C., Wiley, V. A. and Bates, R. P. Biochromatography 1989, 4(3), 161-164.

18. Ghulam, S. and Botting, H. G. J. Assoc.Off. Anal. Chem.1994, 77, 1175-1179.

19. Garg, H. S. and Mitra, C. R. Tetrahedron Lett. 1968, 13, 1549-1552.

20. Stuart, K. L., Roberts, E. V. and Whittle, Y. G. Phytochemistry 1976, 15, 332-333.

21. Natalini, B., Capodiferro, V., De Luca, C. and Espinal, R. J Chromatogr. A 2000, 873, 283-286.

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diam2suka: emAAA($1217)aa$ … 1403201empat_030217

Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 12:11 am

 big-dancing-banana-smiley-emoticon

Bisnis.com, JAKARTA – Pergerakan harga emas menguat pada perdagangan siang ini, Kamis (2/2/2017), seiring pelemahan laju dolar setelah bank sentral AS Federal Reserve memutuskan untuk mempertahankan suku bunga acuannya dalam pertemuan kebijakan pertama sejak Donald Trump dilantik sebagai Presiden AS.

Harga emas Comex kontrak April 2017 menguat 0,79% atau 9,50 poin ke US$1.217,80 per ounce pada pukul 13.22 WIB, setelah dibuka dengan kenaikan 0,24% atau 2,90 poin di  US$1.211,20 per ounce.

Pada saat yang sama, indeks dolar AS yang mengukur pergerakan kurs dolar AS terhadap sejumlah mata uang utama siang ini melemah 0,17% atau 0,170 poin ke level 99,471 setelah dibuka turun tipis 0,03% atau 0,034 poin di posisi 99,607.

Seperti dilansir Reuters hari ini, The Fed mempertahankan suku bunga acuannya dalam pertemuan kebijakannya kemarin, namun memberi gambaran yang relatif optimistis tentang ekonomi AS sehingga memungkinkan langkah pengetatan kebijakan moneter tahun ini.

Meski demikian, The Fed menahan diri untuk secara eksplisit memberi petunjuk kenaikan suku bunga maupun periode untuk langkah selanjutnya.

“Saya lihat emas sedikit bergerak dalam jangka pendek seiring berlanjutnya pelemahan dolar,” ujar Nicholas Frappell, general manager ABC Bullion.

Di sisi lain, menurut Analis INTL FCStone Edward Meir, cerita pertumbuhan global terlihat membaik secara tak terukur di saat gambaran politik semakin suram di sejumlah wilayah di dunia. Ketidakpastian seperti hal ini turut mendukung emas.

Sejalan dengan emas, harga perak kontrak Maret 2017 naik tajam 1,12% atau 0,195 poin ke US$17,645 per ounce, setelah dibuka dengan penguatan 0,66% atau 0,115 poin di posisi 17,565.

Pada perdagangan kemarin, emas dan perak kompak ditutup melemah seiring rebound dolar AS menyusul rilis data manufaktur AS yang menunjukkan kenaikan.

 

Pergerakan emas dan perak di Comex (Commodity Exchange):

Tanggal

Emas kontrak April 2017

US$/ounce

Perak kontrak Maret 2017

US$/ounce

2/2/2017

(Pk. 13.22 WIB)

1.217,80 (+0,79%)

17,645 (+1,12%)

1/2/2017

1.208,30 (-0,26%)

17,450 (-0,53%)

31/1/2017

1.211,40 (+1,29%)

17,543 (+2,28%)

30/1/2017

1.196,00 (+0,41%)

17,152 (+0,09%)

27/1/2017

1.191,10 (-0,12%)

17,136 (+1,70%)

Sumber: Bloomberg

ets-small

 

Bisnis.com, JAKARTA – Harga emas menanjak ke level tertinggi dalam lebih dari dua tahun terakhir sementara perak melonjak akibat aksi para investor yang menumpuk aset safe haven, didorong oleh kekhawatiran atas gejolak politik dan keputusan Inggris untuk meninggalkan Uni Eropa.

Para investor khawatir gejolak politik dan keputusan Inggris untuk meninggalkan Uni Eropa itu berpotensi membatasi pertumbuhan global.

Harga emas menguat 1,1% ke US$1.371,39 per ounce, dan menjadi level tertinggi sejak Maret 2014, dan diperdagangkan di level US$1.367,64 di Singapura pada pukul 10.47 waktu setempat.

Sementara itu, harga perak menguat 2,4% ke US$20,4103 per ounce dan diperdagangkan pada US$20,2469.

“Para investor menginvestasikan uangnya secara besar-besaran dalam emas seiring dengan meningkatnya kegelisahan terkait outlook ekonomi global serta ketidakpastian politik. Sikap bank sentral yang akomodatif juga menguntungkan bagi komoditas ini, khususnya logam mulia” kata Wu Zhili, analis Shenhua Futures Co. yang berbasis di Shenzen seperti dikutip dari Bloomberg, Rabu (6/7/2016).

Logam mulia terlihat menguat seiring dengan sikap investor yang menghindari aset berisiko di tengah gejolak pasar setelah Inggris memenangkan opsi untuk hengkang dari Uni Eropa.

Keputusan tersebut meredupkan prospek kenaikan suku bunga The Fed tahun ini dan mendorong spekulasi yang mengarah kepada akan adanya stimulus lebih lanjut dari Bank sentral Eropa dan Bank of Japan.

Suku bunga negatif di Eropa dan Jepang telah memacu daya tarik emas.

new-chin-year-dragon-02

Bisnis.com, JAKARTA – Referendum Inggris yang bersejarah untuk mengakhiri keanggotaannya di Uni Eropa (Brexit) menjadi panggilan bagi para investor yang menghindari risiko. Hal ini memicu lonjakan senilai US$4,3 miliar untuk kepemilikan emas, nilai harian tertinggi dalam empat tahun.

Harga emas telah reli sebesar 25% tahun ini seiring langkah bank sentral AS Federal Reserve menunda penaikan biaya pinjaman AS serta penerapan tingkat suku bunga negatif di Eropa dan Jepang.

Referendum Brexit menambah ketidakpastian pada pasar global dengan hedge funds yang meningkatkan taruhan pada kenaikan harga ke level tertinggi sepanjang masa selang dua hari menjelang referendum.

“Hal ini akan menjadi perjalanan yang sangat tidak terduga,” kata Justin Smirk, ekonom senior Westpac Banking Corp., seperti dilansir oleh Bloomberg. “Ada banyak ketidakpastian mengenai Brexit, tidak hanya tentang bagaimana mereka (Inggris) melakukannya tapi bahkan apakah itu akan dilakukan. Kita akan menyaksikan risiko datang dan pergi, kemudian, reli dan pelemahan pada pasar emas.”

Dia menambahkan, minat pada emas yang diperdagangkan di bursa efek akan naik namun hal itu tidak akan berlangsung proses bahkan dalam prosesnya.

Nilai bullion untuk pengiriman terdekat naik 0,9% menjadi U$1.327,65 pada pukul 13.43 di Singapura. Logam tersebut melonjak ke U$1.358,54 pada perdagangan Jumat ke tingkat yang belum pernah dicapai sejak Maret 2014. Lonjakan sebesar 8,1% itu adalah yang terbesar dalam satu hari sejak 2008.

Menurut rata-rata 12 prediksi analis dalam survei Bloomberg yang terdiri atas analis dan pedagang dari New York ke London, harga emas dapat naik setinggi U$1.424 per ounce pada akhir tahun ini.

 new-chin-year-dragon-02

Bisnis.com, JAKARTA – Harga emas meraih level puncak baru sepanjang tahun berjalan sekaligus posisi tertinggi sejak Agustus 2014 akibat stagnasi suku bunga Federal Reserve. Diperkirakan batu kuning stabil di atas US$1.300 per troy ounce dalam jangka pendek dan menengah.

Pada perdagangan Kamis (16/6) pukul 19:07 WIB harga emas Gold Spot naik 13,67 poin atau 1,06% menjadi US$1.305,42 per troy ounce. Angka tersebut menunjukkan harga bertumbuh 21,52% sepanjang tahun berjalan.

Wahyu Tribowo Laksono, Analis Komoditas Central Capital Futures, dalam rapat Federal Open Market Committe (FOMC) pada Selasa-Rabu (14-15/6), Bank Sentral AS kembali bersikap dovish soal suku bunga. Alasan utama yang mendasarinya ialah potensi gejolak pasar keuangan akibat Brexit, atau keluarnya Inggris dari UniEropa.

Referendum keputusan Inggris menetap atau keluar dari zona Benua Biru akan dilaksanakan Kamis (23/6). Fenomena Brexit ini akan menjadi sentimen utama pasar global, sehingga The Fed memilih mode wait and see.

Sikap hati-hati ini juga merupakan ekses buruknya data tenaga kerja Paman Sam periode Mei 2016. Meskipun demikian, perekonomian dalam negeri sudah menunjukkan potensi pemulihan.

Keputusan The Fed melemahkan dolar AS sekaligus mengangkat harga emas menembus level tertinggi baru sepanjang tahun berjalan. Dalam jangka pendek (mingguan) dan menengah (kuartalan), Wahyu memprediksi harga emas berpotensi stabil di atas level US$1.300 per troy ounce.

“Langkah penghindaran risiko (risk off) dimana pasar saham turun, harga emas menguat. Selain antisipasi FOMC, naiknya harga juga karena risiko Brexit,” tuturnya kepada Bisnis.com, Kamis (16/6/2016).

Dari sudut pandang teknikal, harga emas sudah melewati level break out US$1.304. Adapun nilai breakout berikutnya ialah US$1.367 untuk peningkatan harga yang lebih tinggi.

new-chin-year-dragon-02

Bisnis.com, JAKARTAEmas berjangka di divisi COMEX New York Mercantile Exchange berakhir sedikit menguat pada Senin (Selasa pagi WIB), memperpanjang keuntungan untuk hari keenam perdagangan berturut-turut.

Menurut Xinhua, kontrak emas yang paling aktif untuk pengiriman Juni naik 5,30 dolar AS, atau 0,41 persen, menjadi menetap di 1.295,80 dolar AS per ounce. Pasar logam mulia di London dan Tiongkok ditutup pada Senin untuk liburan umum, sementara volume perdagangan di pasar logam mulia di COMEX sangat tipis.

Para analis mengaitkan kenaikan emas berjangka terhadap dolar AS yang melemah. Dolar AS menurun terhadap mata uang utama lainnya pada Senin. Di sisi ekonomi, indeks manufaktur AS tercatat 50,8 pada April, menurun satu poin dari angka Maret di 51,8, lembaga riset Institute for Supply Management (ISM) mengatakan dalam sebuah laporan Senin.

Sementara itu, perak untuk pengiriman Juli merosot 13,70 sen, atau 0,77 persen, menjadi ditutup pada 17,682 dolar AS per ounce. Platinum untuk pengiriman Juli naik 8,00 dolar AS, atau 0,74 persen, menjadi ditutup pada 1.086,40 dolar AS per ounce.

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CHICAGO okezone- Emas berjangka di divisi COMEX New York Mercantile Exchange naik karena dolar Amerika Serikat (AS) melemah setelah pertemuan Bank Sentral Eropa memutuskan untuk memangkas suku bunga deposito lebih kecil dari yang diharapkan.

Seperti dilansir Xinhua, Jumat (4/12/2015), kontrak emas yang paling aktif untuk pengiriman Februari naik USD7,4 atau 0,70 persen menjadi menetap di USD1.061,20 per ounce.

Emas mendapat dukungan setelah Bank Sentral Eropa (ECB) memangkas suku bunga menjadi negatif 0,3 persen dan memperpanjang program pembelian obligasi 60 miliar euro untuk merangsang ekonomi zona euro.

Namun, stimulus dan penurunan suku bunga ini lebih kecil daripada yang diharapkan oleh investor, sehingga euro naik tajam terhadap dolar AS, setelah dolar AS mencapai tertinggi multi-tahun dalam persiapan untuk pertemuan ECB.

Indeks dolar AS turun tajam 2,22 persen menjadi 97,80 pada pukul 19.00 GMT. Indeks adalah ukuran dari dolar terhadap sekeranjang mata uang utama.

Emas dan dolar biasanya bergerak berlawanan arah, yang berarti jika dolar melemah maka emas berjangka akan jatuh, karena emas yang dihargakan dalam dolar, menjadi lebih mahal bagi investor yang memegang mata uang lainnya.

Para analis mencatat bahwa ECB telah melakukan kebalikan dari apa yang Federal Reserve AS akan lakukan, karena The Fed sedang mempersiapkan untuk menaikkan suku bunga.

Pasar sekarang telah sepenuhnya memperhitungkan ekspektasi kenaikan suku bunga Desember, dan bahwa pasar sekarang tak yakin waktu untuk kenaikan suku bunga berikutnya.

Laporan klaim pengangguran yang dirilis oleh Departemen Tenaga Kerja AS pada Kamis sejalan dengan harapan, karena klaim pengangguran awal naik 9.000 menjadi 269.000 pada minggu yang berakhir 28 November.

Tetapi para analis mencatat bahwa angka itu tetap dekat posisi terendah bersejarah, dan lebih lanjut dapat meningkatkan harapan untuk laporan ketenagakerjaan pada Jumat, yang kemungkinan memiliki implikasi pada pergerakan pasar, karena laporan ADP yang dirilis Rabu dan klaim pengangguran tersebut melanjutkan tren positif di pasar tenaga kerja.

Perak untuk pengiriman Maret bertambah 6,8 sen, atau 0,49 persen, menjadi ditutup pada USD14,077  per ounce. Platinum untuk pengiriman Januari naik USD15,1 atau 1,81 persen menjadi ditutup padaUSD 847,50 per ounce.

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kata tjuta ozSMALL

NEW YORK kontan. Pada penutupan Senin (12/1), harga kontrak emas dunia ditutup melonjak. Mengutip data Reuters, harga emas di pasar spot sempat naik ke posisi tertingginya sejak 11 Desember lalu di level US$ 1.235. Harga emas spot lantas ditutup dengan kenaikan 1% menjadi US$ 1.234 per troy ounce.

Sedangkan harga kontrak emas untuk pengantaran Februari berada di level US$ 1.232,80 per troy ounce, tertinggi sejak 22 Oktober lalu.

Harga emas melompat setelah penguatan dollar tertahan dan pasar saham berakhir negatif. Kondisi itu juga menyebabkan berubahnya ekspektasi pelaku pasar mengenai kapan suku bunga AS akan naik.

“Pasar didominasi oleh perdebatan mengenai pandangan the Fed mengenai data tenaga kerja, pertumbuhan PDB AS atau inflasi, dan bagaimana fokus mereka akan berdampak pada waktu pelaksanaan kenaikan suku bunga AS,” jelas Societe Generale Analyst Robin Bhar.

Dia menambahkan, saat yang bersamaan, terjadi kejadian kritis seperti pertemuan Bank Sentral Eropa pada pekan depan dan pemilu Yunani. “Sentimen ini akan dapat menyokong harga emas setidaknya hingga akir bulan, akibat kebutuhan tinggi akan safe haven,” urainya.

Editor: Barratut Taqiyyah
Sumber: Reuters

gifi

Wah, emas sentuh posisi tertinggi 6 bulan di NY
Jumat, 14 Maret 2014 | 06:37 WIB

NEW YORK. Harga kontrak emas dunia di New York kembali mendaki pada transaksi tadi malam (13/3). Mengutip data Bloomberg, pada pukul 13.42 waktu New York, harga kontrak emas untuk pengantaran April naik 0,1% menjadi US$ 1.372,40 per troy ounce di Comex, New York. Bahkan pada transaksi sebelumnya, kontrak yang sama menyentuh level US$ 1.375,70 per troy ounce yang merupakan level harga tertinggi untuk kontrak teraktif sejak 10 September 2013 lalu.

Lompatan harga si kuning mentereng masih disebabkan oleh kecemasan investor mengenai ketegangan politik antara Ukraina dan Rusia. Rusia dikabarkan akan segera mengintegrasikan wilayah Crimea milik Ukraina setelah referendum dilakukan. Yang mengkhawatirkan, Rusia menolak upaya-upaya untuk meredakan krisis yang terjadi antar dua negara.

“Situasi di Ukraina masih sangat rentan. Sehingga, kabar apa pun dari negara tersebut dapat mengerek emas. Kita seringkali melihat pelaku pasar berbondong-bondong melakukan penyebaran investasi seperti emas saat kondisi ekonomi global penuh dengan ketidakpastian,” jelas Alfonso Esparza, senior currency analyst di Oanda Corp, Toronto.

Faktor lainnya adalah isu perlambatan ekonomi China. Kondisi ini diperkuat oleh data tingkat ekspor dan penjualan ritel China yang di luar prediksi pelaku pasar.

“Di tengah kecemasan mengenai ekonomi China dan ketegangan politik di Rusia dan Ukraina, emas masih diburu sebagai safe haven,” papar analis Commerzbank AG.
Editor: Barratut Taqiyyah
SUMBER: BLOOMBERG

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