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Februari 24, 2016

pelan-pelan saja: Kurus Tiap Hari, Makan Telur

Filed under: Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 1:20 am

Rabu, 10/03/2010 08:10 WIB

Makan Telur Tiap Hari Dapat Menurunkan Berat Badan

Merry Wahyuningsih – detikHealth

London, Makan telur sangat mengenyangkan terlebih lagi semua kandungan protein dan zat gizi di dalamnya terpenuhi. Makan telur tiap hari membuat orang gampang merasa kenyang sehingga bisa menurunkan berat badan.

Itulah mengapa pada tahun 1979, mantan perdana menteri Inggris Margaret Thatcher bisa mengurangi berat badannya dalam jangka waktu singkat dengan mengonsumsi 28 butir telur dalam seminggu.

Telur selama ini dianggap sebagai makanan yang tinggi kalori dan menyebabkan kolesterol tinggi. Ternyata kandungan kalori telur ukuran sedang hanya 80 kalori.

Makan sebutir telur tiap hari mencukupi kebutuhan 20 persen konsumsi harian manusia. Sehingga setelah makan telur orang tidak perlu lagi berlebihan mengonsumsi makanan lainnya.

Sebuah tim peneliti yang melakukan penelitian di Amerika Serikat menemukan bahwa orang yang makan telur memiliki hampir semua zat gizi yang lebih tinggi daripada orang yang tak mengonsumsi telur.

“Manfaat kesehatan dari telur tampak sangat besar. Sehingga mungkin tidak berlebihan jika menyebutnya makanan super. Telur merupakan makanan yang paling bergizi dari semua makanan yang ada,” kata Dr Carrie Ruxton, seorang ahli diet independen dan penulis laporan, seperti dilansir dari Dailymail, Rabu (10/3/2010).

Telur bisa dianggap ‘makanan super’ karena selain dapat meningkatkan kesehatan juga dapat melawan obesitas. Dan menurut ahli gizi, makan telur satu butir sehari dapat menurunkan berat badan.

Studi yang dirilis ini akan dipublikasikan pada bulan Juni dalam jurnal Nutrition and Food Science. Studi ini meneliti 71 penelitian dan bahan referensi yang memeriksa komposisi gizi telur dan perannya sebagai makanan.

Peneliti menemukan bahwa telur tidak hanya rendah kalori, tetapi juga merupakan sumber kaya protein dan dikemas dengan zat gizi yang penting bagi kesehatan, terutaman vitamin D, vitamin B12, selenium, dan kolin. Telur adalah makanan ideal pada setiap tahap kehidupan serta mudah dimasak dan menyenangkan untuk dimakan.

Sebuah laporan juga menegaskan bahwa diantara makanan protein, telur mengandung campuran asam amino esensial terkaya. Ini sangat penting untuk anak-anak, remaja, dewasa muda karena keseimbangan yang tepat diperlukan untuk pertumbuhan dan perbaikan. Dalam telur juga ditemukan antioksidan yang tinggi, yang dapat membantu mencegah penuaan terkait macular degeneration yang menyebabkan kebutaan.

Kelompok-kelompok tertentu yang mendapatkan manfaat dengan makan lebih banyak telur yaitu kaum muda, pecinta daging dan orang-orang yang menghindari susu.

Temuan kunci adalah bahwa telur merupakan makanan penting sumber vitamin D dan dapat memberikan kontribusi yang signifikan untuk meningkatkan asupan harian vitamin D.

Rendahnya kadar vitamin D dikaitkan dengan sejumlah kondisi medis seperti kerusakan tulang, kanker, penyakit jantung, multiple sclerosis, gangguan kekebalan tubuh dan masalah-masalah kesehatan mental.

Temuan terbaru yang didanai oleh British Egg Industry Council, mengatakan bahwa satu atau dua telur sehari tidak berpengaruh pada kolesterol total bagi kebanyakan orang.

Menurut Dr Ruxton, ada manfaat gizi yang nyata bila makan telur tiap hari. Bukti menunjukkan bahwa telur dapat berguna untuk mengenyangkan, mengendalikan berat badan dan juga untuk kesehatan mata.

(mer/ir)

Jakarta detik, Konsumsi buah-buahan sangat dianjurkan bagi kesehatan tubuh. Namun tak sedikit pula yang ragu karena merasa kebiasaan makan buah manis dapat menimbulkan risiko diabetes.

Jika Anda salah satunya, maka kini Anda tak perlu khawatir berlebihan. Studi terbaru menunjukkan bahwa gula di buah-buahan tidak sama seperti pemanis yang ada di gula pasir, soda dan makanan manis.

Gula alami ini juga tidak sama seperti madu, gula tebu, sirup jagung tinggi fruktosa, dan bentuk lain dari gula yang biasa ditambahkan ke banyak makanan olahan. Dikonsumsi bersamaan dengan serat alami buah, maka tubuh akan menjadi lebih lambat dalam proses penyerapan gula buah tersebut.

Seperti dikutip dari New York Times dan dikutip pada Rabu (24/2/2016), Dr David Ludwig dari New Balance Foundation Obesity Prevention Center di Boston Children’s Hospital menyebutkan bahwa ketika Anda mengonsumsi makanan atau minuman yang mengandung karbohidrat, sistem pencernaan Anda memecahnya menjadi glukosa, yang kemudian memasuki aliran darah.

Nah, ketika kadar glukosa meningkat, pankreas memproduksi insulin. Insulin ini memberi sinyal agar sel menyerap glukosa sehingga dapat digunakan langsung sebagai energi atau disimpan dalam hati dan otot.

Oleh sebab itu, terlalu banyak makan makanan yang manis dan mengandung gula tinggi disebut-sebut dapat membuat terjadinya lonjakan gula darah dan pankreas pun harus bekerja ekstra. Seiring waktu, risiko diabetes tipe 2 pun meningkat.

Beberapa asupan yang diketahui tinggi karbohidrat dan rendah lemak seperti roti putih, biskuit, dan kue kerap dianggap menjadi biang keladi diabetes jika dikonsumsi berlebihan. Begitu juga dengan minuman manis seperti soda dan jus buah kemasan. “Berbeda dengan buah. Gula alami dalam buah utuh memiliki serat, sehingga tidak akan membuat gula darah melonjak drastis,” tutur Ludwig.

Ya, konsumsi buah memiliki segudang manfaat bagi kesehatan, salah satunya mengurangi risiko kanker payudara. Seperti disampaikan oleh para peneliti dari Harvard T.H Chan School of Public Health dan dipublikasikan dalam jurnal Pediatrics, untuk setiap tambahan 10 gram asupan serat harian, misalnya dari sebuah apel, pada masa dewasa awal, risiko kanker payudara menurun sebesar 13 persen.

INILAHCOM, Jakarta- Hanya makan buah-buahan dan sayuran tidak membantu menurunkan berat badan. Demikian hasil penelitian Universitas Alabama di Birmingham.

“Hanya menambahkan mereka pada urutan teratas makanan yang harus dimakan tidak mungkin menyebabkan perubahan berat badan,” kata pemimpin peneliti Kathryn Kaiser. Tapi Anda masih harus mengkonsumsi buah dan sayuran untuk serat dan kadar vitamin.

Tim peneliti melakukan review sistematis dan meta-analisis data dari lebih 1.200 subjek dalam tujuh acak, percobaan dikontrol untuk mengeksplorasi efek penurunan berat badan dengan meningkatkan konsumsi buah dan sayuran.

Hasilnya hampir semua studi menunjukkan hampir mendekati efek 0 pada penurunan berat badan.

Menurut United States Department of Agriculture’s MyPlate, jumlah konsumsi harian yang disarankan bagi orang dewasa yaitu 1,5-2 cangkir buan dan 2-3 cangkir sayuran. Pola makan yang sering dianjurkan untuk menurunkan berat badan adalah makan buah dan sayuran yang rendah kalori namun mengenyangkan karena kaya serat..

Kaiser mengatakan, dalam konteks keseluruhan dari diet yang sehat, pengurangan energi adalah cara untuk membantu menurunkan berat badan, sehingga untuk mengurangi berat badan orang harus mengurangi asupan kalori.

“Orang-orang membuat asumsi bahwa makanan serat tinggi seperti buah-buahan dan sayuran akan menggantikan makanan yang kurang sehat, dan itu mekanisme untuk menurunkan berat badan, tapi temuan kami dari bukti-bukti terbaik yang tersedia menunjukkan efek yang tampaknya tidak hadir di antara orang hanya diinstruksikan untuk meningkatkan asupan buah dan sayuran,” paparnya lagi.

Melansir nydaily, Sabtu (29/6/2014) penelitian Kaiser terbit dalam American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

nydaily:
Upping your intake of fruits and veggies won’t help you lose weight, but will give your body plenty of vitamins and nutrients that it needs. Anna Hoychuk/shutterstock.com Upping your intake of fruits and veggies won’t help you lose weight, but will give your body plenty of vitamins and nutrients that it needs.

Researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham have found that increasing fruit and vegetable intake does not lead to weight loss, despite decades-old popular belief.

A team of investigators performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of data of more than 1,200 subjects in seven randomized, controlled trials to explore the weight loss effects of increasing fruit and vegetable consumption.

“Across the board, all studies we reviewed showed a near-zero effect on weight loss,” says study leader Kathryn Kaiser, Ph.D., instructor in the UAB School of Public Health. “So I don’t think eating more alone is necessarily an effective approach for weight loss because just adding them on top of whatever foods a person may be eating is not likely to cause weight change.”

According to the United States Department of Agriculture’s MyPlate initiative, the recommended daily serving amount for adults is 1.5-2 cups of fruit and 2-3 cups of vegetables, although dieters are often advised to “fill up” on fruits and vegetables based on the assumption that the low-calorie foods will satiate by taking up space in the digestive tract.

“In the overall context of a healthy diet, energy reduction is the way to help lose weight, so to reduce weight you have to reduce caloric intake,” Kaiser said. “People make the assumption that higher-fiber foods like fruits and vegetables will displace the less healthy foods, and that’s a mechanism to lose weight; but our findings from the best available evidence show that effect doesn’t seem to be present among people simply instructed to increase fruit and vegetable intake.”

Fruits and vegetables provide many vitamins and fiber, so even if they don’t promote weight loss, it seems unlikely they could do harm unless consumed in extreme quantities.

A study comparing the popular Mediterranean diet to a reduced-fat diet says that while the former may not promote weight loss, it significantly reduces risk of type 2 diabetes, significantly more than the latter.

Another study, published last year in the New England Journal of Medicine, worked with patients at risk for cardiac disease, concluding that followers of the Mediterranean diet were 30 percent less likely to experience heart attack or stroke than those on a low-fat diet.

Possibly, though, the attention given to fruits and vegetables casts a shadow over other important dietary foods.

For example, a study published in the International Journal of Obesity found that eating two eggs for breakfast can lead to weight loss, which some might find surprising because eggs are sometimes associated with weight gain.

Kaiser’s study was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Eggs and Cholesterol – How Many Eggs Can You Safely Eat?
February 6, 2014 | by Kris Gunnars | 251,233 views

Woman With Basket of EggsEggs are among the most nutritious foods on the planet.

Just imagine… a whole egg contains all the nutrients needed to turn a single cell into an entire baby chicken.

However, eggs have gotten a bad reputation because the yolks are high in cholesterol.

In fact, a single medium sized egg contains 186 mg of cholesterol, which is 62% of the recommended daily intake.

People believed that if you ate cholesterol, that it would raise cholesterol in the blood and contribute to heart disease.

But it turns out that it isn’t that simple. The more you eat of cholesterol, the less your body produces instead.

Let me explain how that works…
How Your Body Regulates Cholesterol Levels

Eggs in a Basket

Cholesterol is often seen as a negative word.

When we hear it, we automatically start thinking of medication, heart attacks and early death.

But the truth is that cholesterol is a very important part of the body. It is a structural molecule that is an essential part of every single cell membrane.

It is also used to make steroid hormones like testosterone, estrogen and cortisol.

Without cholesterol, we wouldn’t even exist.

Given how incredibly important cholesterol is, the body has evolved elaborate ways to ensure that we always have enough of it available.

Because getting cholesterol from the diet isn’t always an option, the liver actually produces cholesterol.

But when we eat a lot of cholesterol rich foods, the liver starts producing less (1, 2).

So the total amount of cholesterol in the body changes only very little (if at all), it is just coming from the diet instead of from the liver (3, 4).

Bottom Line: The liver produces large amounts of cholesterol. When we eat a lot of eggs (high in cholesterol), the liver produces less instead.

What Happens When People Eat Several Whole Eggs Per Day?

Woman Smiling and Holding a Fried Egg

For many decades, people have been advised to limit their consumption of eggs, or at least of egg yolks (the white is mostly protein and is low in cholesterol).

Common recommendations include a maximum of 2-6 yolks per week. However, there really isn’t much scientific support for these limitations (5).

Luckily, we do have a number of excellent studies that can put our minds at ease.

In these studies, people are split into two groups… one group eats several (1-3) whole eggs per day, the other group eats something else (like egg substitutes) instead. Then the researchers follow the people for a number of weeks/months.

These studies show that:

In almost all cases, HDL (the “good”) cholesterol goes up (6, 7, 8).

Total and LDL cholesterol levels usually don’t change, but sometimes they increase slightly (9, 10, 11, 12).

Eating Omega-3 enriched eggs can lower blood triglycerides, another important risk factor (13, 14).

Blood levels of carotenoid antioxidants like Lutein and Zeaxanthine increase significantly (15, 16, 17).

It appears that the response to whole egg consumption depends on the individual.

In 70% of people, it has no effect on Total or LDL cholesterol. However, in 30% of people (termed “hyper responders”), these numbers do go up slightly (18).

That being said, I don’t think this is a problem. The studies show that eggs change the LDL particles from small, dense LDL to Large LDL (19, 20).

People who have predominantly large LDL particles have a lower risk of heart disease. So even if eggs cause mild increases in Total and LDL cholesterol levels, this is not a cause for concern (21, 22, 23).

The science is clear that up to 3 whole eggs per day are perfectly safe for healthy people who are trying to stay healthy.

Bottom Line: Eggs consistently raise HDL (the “good”) cholesterol. For 70% of people, there is no increase in Total or LDL cholesterol. There may be a mild increase in a benign subtype of LDL in some people.

Eggs and Heart Disease

Egg

Many studies have looked at egg consumption and the risk of heart disease.

All of these studies are so-called observational studies. In studies like these, large groups of people are followed for many years.

Then the researchers use statistical methods to figure out whether certain habits (like diet, smoking or exercise) are linked to either a decreased or increased risk of some disease.

These studies, some of which include hundreds of thousands of people, consistently show that people who eat whole eggs are no more likely to develop heart disease. Some of the studies even show a reduced risk of stroke (24, 25, 26).

However… one thing that is worth noting, is that these studies show that diabetics who eat eggs are at an increased risk of heart disease (27).

Whether the eggs are causing the increased risk in diabetics is not known. These types of studies can only show a correlation and it is possible that the diabetics who eat eggs are, on average, less health conscious than those who don’t.

This may also depend on the rest of the diet. On a low-carb diet (by far the best diet for diabetics), eggs lead to improvements in heart disease risk factors (28, 29).

Bottom Line: Many observational studies show that people who eat eggs don’t have an increased risk of heart disease, but some of the studies do show an increased risk in diabetics.

Eggs Have Plenty of Other Health Benefits Too

Woman smiling and holding an egg

Let’s not forget that eggs are about more than just cholesterol… they’re also loaded with nutrients and have various other impressive benefits:

They’re high in Lutein and Zeaxanthine, antioxidants that reduce your risk of eye diseases like Macular Degeneration and Cataracts (30, 31).

They’re very high in Choline, a brain nutrient that over 90% of people are lacking in (32).

They’re high in quality animal protein, which has many benefits – including increased muscle mass and better bone health (33, 34).

Studies show that eggs increase satiety and help you lose fat (35, 36).

Eggs also taste amazing and are incredibly easy to prepare.

So even IF eggs were to have mild adverse effects on blood cholesterol (which they don’t), the benefits of consuming them would still far outweigh the negatives.

Bottom Line: Eggs are among the most nutritious foods on the planet. They contain important brain nutrients and powerful antioxidants that can protect the eyes.

How Much is Too Much?

Chicken and Egg, Smaller

Unfortunately, we don’t have studies where people are fed more than 3 eggs per day.

It is possible (although unlikely) that eating even more than that could have a detrimental effect on health. Eating more than 3 is uncharted territory, so to speak.

However… I did find an interesting case study (a study with only one individual). It was an 88 year old man who consumed 25 eggs per day.

He had normal cholesterol levels and was in very good health (37).

Of course, a study of one doesn’t prove anything, but it’s interesting nonetheless.

It’s also important to keep in mind that not all eggs are the same. Most eggs at the supermarket are from chickens that are raised in factories and fed grain-based feeds.

The healthiest eggs are Omega-3 enriched eggs, or eggs from hens that are raised on pasture. These eggs are much higher in Omega-3s and important fat-soluble vitamins (38, 39).

Overall, eating eggs is perfectly safe, even if you’re eating up to 3 whole eggs per day.

I personally eat 3-6 whole eggs per day (about 30-40 per week) and my health has never been better.

Given the incredible range of nutrients and powerful health benefits, quality eggs may just be the healthiest food on the planet.

Eggs

Eggs are available year round to provide not only delicious meals on their own but as an essential ingredient for the many baked goods and sauces that would never be the same without them.Composed of a yellow yolk and translucent white surrounded by a protective shell, the incredible nature of the egg is partially found in their unique food chemistry which allows them help in coagulation, foaming, emulsification and browning.

Food Chart

This chart graphically details the %DV that a serving of Eggs provides for each of the nutrients of which it is a good, very good, or excellent source according to our Food Rating System. Additional information about the amount of these nutrients provided by Eggs can be found in the Food Rating System Chart. A link that takes you to the In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Eggs, featuring information over 80 nutrients, can be found under the Food Rating System Chart.

Health Benefits

Eggs are a good source of low-cost high-quality protein, providing 5.5 grams of protein (11.1% of the daily value for protein) in one egg for a caloric cost of only 68 calories. The structure of humans and animals is built on protein. We rely on animal and vegetable protein for our supply of amino acids, and then our bodies rearrange the nitrogen to create the pattern of amino acids we require.

Boost Brain Health with Eggs’ Choline

Another health benefit of eggs is their contribution to the diet as a source of choline. Although our bodies can produce some choline, we cannot make enough to make up for an inadequate supply in our diets, and choline deficiency can also cause deficiency of another B vitamin critically important for health, folic acid.

Choline is definitely a nutrient needed in good supply for good health. Choline is a key component of many fat-containing structures in cell membranes, whose flexibility and integrity depend on adequate supplies of choline. Two fat-like molecules in the brain, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, account for an unusually high percentage of the brain’s total mass, so choline is particularly important for brain function and health.

In addition, choline is a highly important molecule in a cellular process called methylation. Many important chemical events in the body are made possible by methylation, in which methyl groups are transferred from one place to another. For example, genes in the body can be switched on or turned off in this way, and cells use methylation to send messages back and forth. Choline, which contains three methyl groups, is highly active in this process.

Choline is also a key component of acetylcholine. A neurotrasmitter that carries messages from and to nerves, acetylcholine is the body’s primary chemical means of sending messages between nerves and muscles.

Eggs’ Choline Reduces Inflammation

People whose diets supplied the highest average intake of choline (found in egg yolk and soybeans), and its metabolite betaine (found naturally in vegetables such as beets and spinach), have levels of inflammatory markers at least 20% lower than subjects with the lowest average intakes, report Greek researchers in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition(Detopoulou P, Panagiotakos DB, et al.)

Compared to those whose diets contained 310 mg of choline daily had, on average:

  • 22% lower concentrations of C-reactive protein
  • 26% lower concentrations of interleukin-6
  • 6% lower concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha

Compared to those consuming 360 mg per day of betaine had, on average:

  • 10% lower concentrations of homocysteine
  • 19% lower concentrations of C-reactive protein
  • 12% lower concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alphaEach of these markers of chronic inflammation has been linked to a wide range of conditions including heart disease, osteoporosis, cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s, and type-2 diabetes.In an accompanying editorial in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition entitled, “Is there a new component of the Mediterranean diet that reduces inflammation?,” Steven Zeisel from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill noted that choline and betaine work together in the cellular process of methylation, which is not only responsible for the removal of homocysteine, but is involved in turning off the promoter regions of genes involved in inflammation.”Exposure to oxidative stress is a potent trigger for inflammation. Betaine is formed from choline within the mitochondria , and this oxidation contributes to mitochondrial redox status ,” Zeisel continued.

    “If the association between choline and betaine and inflammation can be confirmed in studies of other populations, an interesting new dietary approach may be available for reducing chronic diseases associated with inflammation,” he concluded.

    Recommended daily intakes of choline were set in 1998 at 550 milligrams per day for men and 425 milligrams a day for women. No RDI has been set for betaine, which, since it is a metabolite of choline, is not considered an essential nutrient.

    Practical Tip: Egg yolks are the richest source of choline, followed by soybeans. Spinach, beets and whole wheat products are primary sources of betaine. (Olthof MR, van Vliet T, et al. J Nutr)

Eggs — An Easy Answer for Americans’ Unmet Need for Choline

More than 90% of Americans are choline-deficient. An assessment American’s dietary choline intake by Iowa State University researchers (Jensen H, Batres-Marquez S, et al., FASEB Journal) revealed that for older children, men, women and pregnant women, intake is dramatically below Adequate Intake (AI) levels, with only 10% or less of all these groups getting even close to recommended amounts of choline.

This finding is especially concerning in pregnant women because choline is necessary for brain and memory development in the fetus. (Shaw GM, Carmichael SL, Am J Epidemiol; Zeisel SH, Annu Rev Nutr) The National Academy of Sciences recommends higher daily intake of choline for pregnant and breastfeeding women (550 mg and 450 mg, respectively).

Older adults are also at high risk of choline deficiency. Research presented by Debra Keast, PhD, at the 31st National Nutrient Data Bank Conference, Washington, DC, revealed that choline intake decreases with age, with adults ages 71 and older typically consuming an average of about 264 milligrams per day, roughly half the AI for choline (550 mg/day for men, 425 mg/day for women).

And even getting the recommended AI for choline may not meet the needs of approximately 20% of men. Research published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Fischer LM, deCosta KA, et al.) found that when 26 men were given a diet providing 550 mg/day of choline, 6 of the men developed fatty liver or muscle damage (signs of choline insufficiency).

In addition to the 26 men, 16 premenopausal and 15 postmenopausal women took part in this study. All participants were fed a diet supplying 550 mg/day of choline for 10 days followed by a diet containing less than 50 mg/day of choline for up to another 42 days.

When deprived of dietary choline, 77% of the men, 80% of the postmenopausal women, and 44% of the premenopausal women developed fatty liver or muscle damage. (Premenopausal women, while harmed, were not as sorely affected because choline can be made by our bodies from the de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is up-regulated by estrogen.)

Practical Tip: Foods that are good sources of choline should be frequent contributors to your healthy way of eating. Two large eggs provide 252 milligrams of choline (all in yolk), a little less than half the recommended daily supply, and and also contain 630 milligrams (yes, milligrams not micrograms) ofphosphatidylcholine. Although most sources just report the free choline at 252 micrograms, it is the phosphatidylcholine that is the most common form in which choline is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids.

Other rich sources of choline (per 100 grams / 3 ounces of food) include beef liver (355 mg), dried soy beans (116 mg), wheat germ (152 mg), cod (83 mg), chicken (70 mg, and salmon (65 mg).

An Egg Breakfast Helps Promote Weight Loss

In a randomized controlled trial, 160 overweight or obese men and women were divided into 2 groups, one of which ate a breakfast including 2 eggs, while the other consumed a bagel breakfast supplying the same amount of calories and weight mass (an important control factor in satiety and weight loss studies). Participants ate their assigned breakfast at least 5 days a week for 8 weeks as part of a low-fat diet with a 1,000 calorie deficit. (Dhurandhar N, Vander Wal J, et al, FASEB Journal)

Compared to those on the bagel breakfast, egg eaters:

  • Lost almost twice as much weight — egg eaters lost an average of 6.0 pounds compared to bagel eaters’ 3.5 pound loss.
  • Had an 83% greater decrease in waist circumference
  • Reported greater improvements in energy

No significant differences were seen between blood levels of total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in either group, confirming what other studies (Ballesteros MN, Cabrera RM, Am J Clin Nutr) have shown, including a relative risk study presented at the Experimental Biology meeting: healthy people can safely enjoy eggs without increasing their heart attack risk. The relative risk study, a thorough scientific review of the major studies concerning heart disease causation, which was conducted by Washington, DC-based scientific consulting firm, Exponent, found that eggs contribute just 0.6 percent of men’s and 0.4 percent of women’s coronary heart disease risk.

Eggs and Heart Health

In addition to its significant effects on brain function and the nervous system, choline also has an impact on cardiovascular health since it is one of the B vitamins that helps converthomocysteine, a molecule that can damage blood vessels, into other benign substances. Eggs are also a good source of vitamin B12, another B vitamin that is of major importance in the process of converting homocysteine into safe molecules.

Eggs are high in cholesterol, and health experts in the past counseled people to therefore avoid this food. (All of the cholesterol in the egg is in the yolk.) However, nutrition experts have now determined people on a low-fat diet can eat one or two eggs a day without measurable changes in their blood cholesterol levels. This information is supported by a statistical analysis of 224 dietary studies carried out over the past 25 years that investigated the relationship between diet and blood cholesterol levels in over 8,000 subjects. What investigators in this study found was that saturated fat in the diet, not dietary cholesterol, is what influences blood cholesterol levels the most.

Improve Your Cholesterol Profile

Not only have studies shown that eggs do not significantly affect cholesterol levels in most individuals, but the latest research suggests that eating whole eggs may actually result in significant improvement in one’s blood lipids (cholesterol) profile-even in persons whose cholesterol levels rise when eating cholesterol-rich foods.

In northern Mexico, an area in which the diet contains a high amount of fat because of its reliance on low-cost meat products and tortillas made with hydrogenated oils, coronary artery disease is common. In a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, researchers evaluated the effects of daily consumption of whole eggs on the ratio of LDL (bad) cholesterol to HDL (good) cholesterol, and phenotype (the way an individual’s genetic possibilities are actually expressed) in 54 children (8-12 years old) from this region. A month of eating 2 eggs daily, not only did not worsen the children’s ratio of LDL:HDL, which remained the same, but the size of their LDL cholesterol increased-a very beneficial change since larger LDL is much less atherogenic (likely to promote atherosclerosis) than the smaller LDL subfractions. Among children who originally had the high-risk LDL phenotype B, 15% shifted to the low-risk LDL phenotype A after just one month of eating whole eggs.

Helping to Prevent Blood Clots

Eating eggs may help lower risk of a heart attack or stroke by helping to prevent blood clots. A study published in Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin demonstrated that proteins in egg yolk are not only potent inhibitors of human platelet aggregation, but also prolong the time it takes for fibrinogen, a protein present in blood, to be converted into fibrin. Fibrin serves as the scaffolding upon which clumps of platelets along with red and white blood cells are deposited to form a blood clot. These anti-clotting egg yolk proteins inhibit clot formation in a dose-dependent manner-the more egg yolks eaten, the more clot preventing action.(That being said, it’s still important to only eat the amount of eggs that fits within your own personal Healthiest Way of Eating.)

Protection against Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Cataracts

Lutein, a carotenoid thought to help prevent age-related macular degeneration and cataracts, may be found in even higher amounts in eggs than in green vegetables such as spinach, which have been considered its major dietary sources, as well as in supplements. Research presented at the annual American Dietetic Association Conference in San Antonio, Texas, in 2003, by Elizabeth Johnson from the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University also showed that natural lutein esters found in eggs are as or even more bioavailable as the forms of the nutrient offered in purified lutein products. Johnson’s trial tested serum lutein concentration in 10 healthy men, before and after daily consumption of 6mg lutein obtained from four different sources: eggs from chickens fed marigold petals (which are high in lutein), spinach (one of the best known sources of dietary lutein), lutein ester supplements (purified lutein) and lutein supplements. Differences in serum lutein levels in response to the various types of doses were observed the day after the first dose: the serum lutein response to egg was significantly greater than the supplements but no higher than the response to the spinach. After nine days of daily lutein dosing, the serum lutein response was significantly greater in the egg phase than either of the supplements or the spinach. The bottom line: this study suggests that eating lutein-rich foods may be a more effective means of boosting lutein concentration in the eye than taking supplements.

Another human study, published in the i>Journal of Nutrition, confirms that lutein is best absorbed from egg yolk-not lutein supplements or even spinach. Egg yolks, although they contain significantly less lutein than spinach, are a much more bioavailable source whose consumption increases lutein concentrations in the blood many-fold higher than spinach.

Although the mechanism by which egg yolk increases lutein bioavailability is not yet known, it is likely due to the fats (cholesterol and choline) found in egg yolk. Lutein, like other carotenoids, is fat-soluble, so cannot be absorbed unless fat is also present. (If this is the case, then to enhance the lutein absorption from spinach and other vegetables rich in this nutrient, we suggest enjoying them with some fat such as extra virgin olive oil). To maximally boost your lutein absorption, you could also combine both eggs and spinach. Whether you prefer your spinach steamed, sautéed or fresh in spinach salad, dress it with a little olive oil and a topping of chopped hard-boiled egg. For a flavorful, quick and easy recipe featuring eggs and spinach, try our Poached Eggs over Spinach and Mushrooms.

Eggs Protect Eyesight without Increasing Cholesterol

Two new studies published in the Journal of Nutrition add further evidence to the theory that a daily egg-whose yolk is a rich source of vision-protective carotenoids, including not only lutein but also zeaxanthin-may reduce the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

The studies, both conducted at the University of Massachusetts, show that, in addition to keeping hunger at bay longer (eggs’ satiety index is 50% than that of most breakfast cereals), an egg a day boosts blood levels of both lutein and zeaxanthin, thus reducing the risk of AMD-without increasing cholesterol or triglyceride levels.

In AMD, the macula, the central part of the retina which controls fine vision, deteriorates, greatly limiting eyesight or even resulting in blindness in those afflicted. The leading cause of blindness in people over age 50, AMD afflicts more than 10 million people in the United States, plus an additional 15 to 20 million worldwide.

In the first study, a randomized cross-over trial, Elizabeth Goodrow and her team investigated the effects of eating one egg a day on blood levels of lutein, zeaxanthin, cholesterol and triglycerides in 33 men and women over age 60.

After a no-egg start up week, volunteers ate either an egg or egg substitute daily for 5 weeks, then again ate no eggs for a week before crossing over to the other intervention for a second 5 weeks.

After the 5-week period in which they ate a daily egg, participants’ blood levels of lutein and zeaxanthin significantly increased by 26 and 38%, respectively, compared to their levels of these carotenoids after their no-egg week.

And although eggs are well-known for containing cholesterol, participants’ blood levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were not affected by eating an egg a day.

In the second study, researchers led by Adam Wenzel looked at the effect of a 12-week egg intervention on lutein and zeaxanthin levels in both the blood and the retina of the eye (the macular pigment optical density or MOPD) of 24 women ranging in age from 24 to 59.

The women were randomly assigned to eat 6 eggs every week containing either 331 micrograms (Egg1) or 964 micrograms (Egg2) of lutein and zeaxanthin per yolk, or a placebo (a sugar-filled pill).

No changes in cholesterol levels were seen in the women eating eggs, but in those given the placebo (the sugar pill), increases in total cholesterol and triglycerides were recorded.

Unlike the first study, only blood levels of zeaxanthin, but not lutein, increased in both Egg1 and Egg2 groups; however, carotenoid levels in the retina (MPOD) increased in both egg intervention groups, a result that suggests a daily egg offers protection against AMD.

Although egg yolk contains less lutein and zeaxanthin than some other foods-spinach, for example-when supplied by eggs, these carotenoids appear to be especially well absorbed into the retina. “Increasing egg consumption to 6 eggs per week may be an effective method to increase MPOD,” wrote lead study author Wenzel.

So, enjoy a quick and easy, vision-sustaining poached or soft boiled egg for breakfast. Take an egg salad sandwich to work or add a hard boiled egg to your luncheon salad. On the weekend, treat yourself to our Healthy Breakfast Frittata or Egg Crepes filled with veggies, one of the delicious egg recipes featured inThe World’s Healthiest Foods Essential Guide. We suggest choosing organic omega-3-rich eggs if available. Produced by hens fed a diet rich in flaxseed, these eggs are an exceptional source not only of lutein and xeaxanthin, but anti-inflammatory omega-3 essential fatty acids as well.

Description

Eggs are egg-ceptional foods. They are whole foods, prepackaged sources of carbohydrates, protein, fat and micronutrients. Yet, their eggs-quisite nutritional value should not be surprising when you remember that an egg contains everything needed for the nourishment of a developing chick.

Eggs are composed of a yellow yolk and translucent white surrounded by a protective shell that can be white or brown, depending upon the breed of the chicken. The shell’s color is not related to the quality or nutritional value of the egg itself.

In addition to their wonderful taste and nutritional content, eggs hold an esteemed place in cooking since due to their food chemistry, they serve many unique functions in recipes, including coagulation, foaming, emulsification and browning.

While chickens are not the only animals that lay eggs that are enjoyed in various cuisines, it is the type featured in this article because it is the most highly accessible in North America.

In Latin, the scientific name for chicken is Gallus domesticus.

History

The history of the egg as food runs mostly parallel with the history of people consuming chicken as food. Although it is uncertain when and where it began, the practice of raising chickens for food is ancient and so, subsequently, is the consumption of eggs as food, extending back to the times of early man.

Eggs have always been a symbol of fertility and have been an icon of religious worship. To this day, there is still a lot of folklore surrounding eggs that is enjoyed by different cultures around the world.

One of the most widely held food and holiday associations is that of the Easter egg. How the egg became associated with this holiday seems to have roots that are both biological and cultural. Before more modern techniques of poultry raising, hens laid few eggs during the winter. This meant that Easter, occuring with the advent of spring, coincided with the hen’s renewed cycle of laying numerous eggs. Additionally, since eggs were traditionally considered a food of luxury, they were forbidden during Lent, so Christians had to wait until Easter to eat them-another reason eggs became associated with this holiday. Interestingly enough, the custom of painting eggshells has an extensive history and was a popular custom among many ancient civilizations, including the Egyptians, Chinese, Greeks and Persians.

How to Select and Store

Oftentimes, in the U.S., eggs are classified according to the USDA grading system and bear a label of AA, A, or B. This grading is an indicator of quality parameters, including freshness, with AA being of the most superior in quality. Eggs are also labeled according to their size-extra large, large, medium and small-which is graded according to a standard.

Yet, you may not see any labeling on the eggs you buy since it is not legally mandatory that they be inspected and graded by these federal standards. This is often the situation when you buy farm fresh eggs from a local purveyor. If this is the case, get to know the seller and his or her reputation and make sure that, as usual, the eggs are kept refrigerated.

Inspect any eggs that you purchase for breaks or cracks. And of course, take care when packing them in your shopping bag for the trip home as they are very fragile.

Store eggs in the refrigerator where they will stay fresh for about one month. Do not wash them as this can remove their protective coating. Keep them in their original carton or in a covered container so that they do not absorb odors or lose any moisture. Do not store them in the refrigerator door since this exposes them to too much heat each time the refrigerator is opened and closed. Make sure to store them with their pointed end facing downward as this will help to prevent the air chamber, and the yolk, from being displaced.

How to Enjoy

For some of our favorite recipes, click Recipes.

Tips for Preparing Eggs:

In order to prevent any possible contamination to a recipe by a spoiled egg, break each egg separately into a small bowl before combining with the other ingredients.

A Few Quick Serving Ideas:

Hard-boiled eggs are fun to eat and easy to pack for on-the-go lunches.

Mix chopped up hard-boiled eggs with fresh lemon juice and olive oil, leeks and dill (and salt and pepper to taste) to make a healthy egg salad.

Instead of Eggs Benedict, make Eggs “Buenodict.” Place a poached egg on top of a whole grain English muffin lined with steamed spinach. Top with salsa or any of your favorite seasonings and enjoy.

Say olé to the day with a huevos ranchero breakfast. Add chili peppers to scrambled eggs and serve with black beans and corn tortillas.

Individual Concerns

Allergic Reactions to Eggs

Although allergic reactions can occur to virtually any food, research studies on food allergy consistently report more problems with some foods than with others. For example, according to a recent report by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, 90% of food allergies are associated with 8 food types: hen’s eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, cow’s milk, soy foods, peanuts, wheat, and tree nuts. (Crustacean shellfish include shrimp, prawns, lobster, and crab. Tree nuts include almonds, cashews, walnuts, pecans, pistachios, Brazil nuts, hazelnuts, and chestnuts.)

These foods do not need to be eaten in their pure, isolated form in order to trigger an adverse reaction. For example, yogurt made from cow’s milk is also a common allergenic food, even though the cow’s milk has been processed and fermented in order to make the yogurt. Ice cream made from cow’s milk would be an equally good example.

Food allergy symptoms may sometimes be immediate and specific, and can include skin rash, hives, itching, and eczema; swelling of the lips, tongue, or throat; tingling in the mouth; wheezing or nasal congestion; trouble breathing; and dizziness or lightheadedness. But food allergy symptoms may also be much more general and delayed, and can include fatigue, depression, chronic headache, chronic bowel problems (such as diarrhea or constipation), and insomnia. Because most food allergy symptoms can be caused by a variety of other health problems, it is good practice to seek the help of a healthcare provider when evaluating the role of food allergies in your health.

Handling of Eggs

Health safety concerns about eggs center on salmonellosis(salmonella-caused food poisoning). Salmonella bacteria from the chicken’s intestines may be found even in clean, uncracked eggs. Formerly, these bacteria were found only in eggs with cracked shells. Safe food techniques, like washing the eggs before cracking them, may not protect you from infection. To destroy the bacteria, eggs must be cooked at high enough temperatures for a sufficient length of time to destroy the bacteria. Soft-cooked, sunny-side up or raw eggs carry salmonellosis risk. Hard-boiled, scrambled, or poached eggs do not.

Another reason to avoid consuming raw eggs is that raw egg whites contain a glycoprotein called avidin, which binds to eggs’ supply of the B vitamin biotin very tightly, preventing its absorption. Cooking the egg whites changes avidin, making it susceptible to digestion and unable to interfere with the intestinal absorption of biotin.

Dishes and utensils used when preparing eggs should be washed in warm water separately from other kitchenware, and hand-washing with warm, soapy water is essential after handling eggs. Any surfaces that might have potentially come into contact with raw egg should be washed and can be sanitized with a solution of 1 teaspoon chlorine to 1 quart water.

Nutritional Profile

Our food ranking system also qualified eggs as a very good source of selenium, iodine, and vitamin B2 and a good source of protein, molybdenum, phosphorus, vitamin B5, vitamin B12 and vitamin D.

For an in-depth nutritional profile click here: Eggs.

In-Depth Nutritional Profile

In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, an in-depth nutritional profile for Eggs is also available. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients, including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids and more.

Introduction to Food Rating System Chart

In order to better help you identify foods that feature a high concentration of nutrients for the calories they contain, we created a Food Rating System. This system allows us to highlight the foods that are especially rich in particular nutrients. The following chart shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent, very good, or good source (below the chart you will find a table that explains these qualifications). If a nutrient is not listed in the chart, it does not necessarily mean that the food doesn’t contain it. It simply means that the nutrient is not provided in a sufficient amount or concentration to meet our rating criteria. (To view this food’s in-depth nutritional profile that includes values for dozens of nutrients – not just the ones rated as excellent, very good, or good – please use the link below the chart.) To read this chart accurately, you’ll need to glance up in the top left corner where you will find the name of the food and the serving size we used to calculate the food’s nutrient composition. This serving size will tell you how much of the food you need to eat to obtain the amount of nutrients found in the chart. Now, returning to the chart itself, you can look next to the nutrient name in order to find the nutrient amount it offers, the percent Daily Value (DV%) that this amount represents, the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating we established in our rating system. For most of our nutrient ratings, we adopted the government standards for food labeling that are found in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s “Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling.” Read more background information and details of our rating system.

Egg, whole, boiled

1.00 each

44.00 grams

68.20 calories

Nutrient Amount DV

(%)

Nutrient

Density

World’s Healthiest

Foods Rating

tryptophan 0.07 g 21.9 5.8 very good
selenium 13.55 mcg 19.4 5.1 very good
iodine 23.76 mcg 15.8 4.2 very good
vitamin B2 (riboflavin) 0.23 mg 13.5 3.6 very good
protein 5.54 g 11.1 2.9 good
molybdenum 7.48 mcg 10.0 2.6 good
vitamin B12 (cobalamin) 0.49 mcg 8.2 2.2 good
phosphorus 75.68 mg 7.6 2.0 good
vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) 0.62 mg 6.2 1.6 good
vitamin D 22.88 IU 5.7 1.5 good
World’s Healthiest

Foods Rating

Rule
excellent DV>=75% OR Density>=7.6 AND DV>=10%
very good DV>=50% OR Density>=3.4 AND DV>=5%
good DV>=25% OR Density>=1.5 AND DV>=2.5%

In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Eggs

teori penunjang lage :

 

The process by which food is converted into useful energy is called metabolism . It begins with chemical processes in the gastrointestinal tract which change plant and animal food into less complex components so that they can be absorbed to fulfill their various functions in the body— growth, repair, and fuel. Different foods have different energy values, measured in calories. An ideal diet for the average healthy individual provides the highest nutritional benefits from the fewest number of calories. Information on the protein, fat, and carbohydrate content in specific foods, as well as the number of calories, may be obtained by consulting the tables “Nutrients in Common Foods.” The Metric Equivalents table converts spoon and cup measures into metric measures.

Protein

Of the several essential components of food, protein is in many ways the most important. This is so not only because it is one of the three principal sources of energy, but also because much of the body’s structure is made up of proteins. For example, the typical 160-pound man is composed of about 100 pounds of water, 29 pounds of protein, 25 pounds of fat, 5 pounds of minerals, 1 pound of carbohydrate, and less than an ounce of vitamins. Because the muscles, heart, brain, lungs, and gastrointestinal organs are made up largely of protein, and since the protein in these organs is in constant need of replacement, its importance is obvious.

The recommended dietary allowance for protein is 0.8 g/Kg of body weight per day for persons aged 15 and up and 1 g/Kg of body weight for children under 15. (To convert your weight from pounds to kilograms, divide by 2.2. Thus a woman weighing 130 pounds weighs about 59 kilograms and needs about 47 grams of protein a day. A man weighing 175 pounds needs about 64 grams of protein a day.) Most Americans, however, eat about twice the amount they need, and while more may sound better, too much is too much. Your body uses what it needs. Some excess protein is excreted as urine; the rest is converted to fat.

Chemically, proteins are varying mixtures of amino acids that contain various elements, including nitrogen. There are 22 different amino acids that are essential for the body’s protein needs. Nine of these must be provided in the diet and are thus called essential amino acids; the rest can be synthesized by the body itself.

Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and milk or milk products are the primary protein foods and contain all of the necessary amino acids; they are therefore called complete proteins. Grains and vegetables are partly made up of protein, but more often than not, they do not provide the whole range of amino acids required for proper nourishment. When properly combined, however, vegetable proteins, too, can be complete. For example, mixing rice and dried beans provides the same quality of protein as a steak (with a lot less fat).

One gram of protein provides four calories of energy.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are another essential energy source. Called starches or sugars , they are present in large quantities in grains, fruits, and nuts. As complex carbohydrates , or polysaccharides , they are found in the foods named and particularly in breads, breakfast cereals, flours, pastas, barley legumes, rice, and starchy vegetables. Simple carbohydrates , or mono- or disaccharides, are found in such foods as table sugars, candy, pastries, and soft drinks.

Complex carbohydrates are primary sources of calories, nutrients, and fiber—for such purposes as muscle contraction, weight reduction, and control of sodium and cholesterol. Simple carbohydrates, on the other hand, are pure sources of calories and contain little nutritional value. It is for this reason that they are often termed “empty” calories. Lack of adequate carbohydrates means the body will begin to convert body fat or protein into sugar.

Although there is no absolute dietary requirement for carbohydrates, it is generally recommended that more than half the energy requirement beyond infancy be provided by complex carbohydrates. One gram of carbohydrate provides four calories of energy. Thus the average man consuming about 2,900 calories per day should consume about 360 grams of carbohydrate. The average woman consuming about 2,200 calories per day should consume about 275 grams of carbohydrate.

Fats

Fats are a chemically complex food component composed of glycerol (a sweet, oily alcohol) and fatty acids. Fats exist in several forms and come from a variety of sources. One way to think of them is to group them as visible fats, such as butter, salad oil, or the fat seen in meat, and as invisible fats, which are mingled, blended, or absorbed into food, either naturally, as in nuts, meat, or fish, or during cooking. Another way is to think of them as solid at room temperature (fats), or as liquid at room temperature (oils).

Saturated and Unsaturated

Fats are also classified as saturated or unsaturated . This is a chemical distinction based on the differences in molecular structure of different kinds of fat. If the carbon atoms in a fat molecule are surrounded or boxed in by hydrogen atoms, they are said to be saturated. This type of fat tends to be solid at room temperature, and high consumption of it increases the cholesterol content of the blood, which can lead to heart disease. Unsaturated fats, such as those found in fish and vegetable oils, contain the least number of hydrogen atoms and do not add to the blood cholesterol content. They are either monounsaturated or polyunsaturated . In general, fats in foods of plant origin are more unsaturated than in those of animal origin (except for coconut and palm oils, which are highly saturated). It is recommended that you consume no more than 30 percent of your daily calories from fats; 10 percent of each of the three types, or, for our average man, about 32 grams total; for our average woman, about 24 grams total.

Fats play several essential roles in the metabolic process. First of all, they provide more than twice the number of calories on a comparative weight basis than do proteins and carbohydrates (one gram of fat contains nine calories). They also can be stored in the body in large quantities (in adipose tissue) and used as a later energy source. They serve as carriers of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K, and—of no little importance—they add to the tastiness of food.

Vitamins

Vitamins , which are present in minute quantities in foods in their natural state, are essential for normal metabolism and for the development and maintenance of tissue structure and function. In addition to the fat-soluble vitamins noted above, there are a number of B vitamins, as well as vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid . If any particular vitamin is missing from the diet over a sufficiently long time, a specific disease will result.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is essential for vision, growth, cell growth and development, reproduction, a strong immune

 

Average Daily Calorie Consumption

 

 

Calorie Consumption for Some Activities

 

 

Modified Calorie/Weight Reduction Diet

 

Average Daily Calorie Consumption
Men Calories
Guidelines for average daily calorie consumption by men and women. With increasing use of labor-saving devices, most Americans fall into the sedentary category.
Sedentary 2,500
Moderately active 3,000
Active 3,500
Very active 4,250
Women Calories
Sedentary 2,100
Moderately active 2,500
Active 3,000
Very active 3,750
Calorie Consumption for Some Activities
Type of Activity Calories Per Hour
Sedentary: reading, sewing, typing, etc. 30–100
Light: cooking, slow walking, dressing, etc. 100–170
Moderate: sweeping, light gardening, making beds, etc. 170–250
Vigorous: fast walking, hanging out clothes, golfing, etc. 250–350
Strenuous: swimming, bicycling, dancing, etc. 350 and more
Modified Calorie/Weight Reduction Diet
Sample Menus
1,500 Calories 1,800 Calories 2,000 Calories
From the Clinical Center Diet Manual , Clinical Center Nutrition Department, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services.
Breakfast 1 serving fruit/juice 1 serving fruit/juice 1 serving fruit/juice
1 slice toast 1 slice toast 1 slice toast
1 serving egg or substitute 1 serving egg or substitute 1 serving egg or substitute
1 serving margarine 1 serving cereal 1 serving cereal
1 cup skim milk 1 serving margarine 1 serving margarine
coffee/tea 1 cup skim milk 1 cup skim milk
coffee/tea coffee/tea
Lunch 2-3 ounces meat 2-3 ounces meat 2-3 ounces meat
1 serving potato or 1 serving potato or 1 serving potato or
substitute substitute substitute
1 serving bread 1 serving bread 1 serving bread
vegetables vegetables vegetables
salad/non-fat dressing salad/non-fat dressing Salad/non-fat dressing
2 servings fruit/juice
2 servings fruit 2 servings fruit/juice 1 serving margarine
1 serving margarine 1 serving margarine 1 cup skim milk
coffee/tea coffee/tea coffee/tea
Dinner 2-3 ounces meat 2-3 ounces meat 2-3 ounces meat
1 serving potato or substitute 1 serving potato or substitute 2 servings potato or substitute
1 serving bread 1 serving bread 1 serving bread
vegetables vegetables vegetables
salad/non-fat dressing salad/non-fat dressing Salad/non-fat dressing
1 serving fruit/juice
1 serving fruit 2 servings fruit/juice 2 servings margarine
2 servings margarine 2 servings margarine coffee/tea
coffee/tea coffee/tea
Snack 3 graham crackers 1 ounce meat 1 ounce meat
1 cup skim milk 1 slice bread 1 slice bread
1 serving reduced-fat mayonnaise 1 serving reduced-fat mayonnaise
1 cup skim milk non-alcoholic beverage

system, and healthy hair, skin, and mucous membranes.

Vitamin A is fat soluble and is therefore stored by the body (in the liver). It comes in two forms: retinol, found only in animal foods (chiefly liver), and beta-carotene, found in fruits and vegetables (chiefly deep green or orange ones like spinach and sweet potatoes). Retinol is instantly available for bodily use, while beta-carotene must be converted by the body into retinol before it can be used. (Because the body will not convert excess beta-carotene into retinol, there is no danger of overdosing on this form of vitamin A Retinol, however, can be extremely toxic at high levels.)

Symptoms of vitamin A deficiency include dry rough skin, slow growth, night blindness, thickening of bone, and increased susceptibility to infection. Vitamin A deficiency is rare in the United States.

Formerly measured in International Units (IU), vitamin A content is now expressed retinol equivalents (RE). One RE equals 10 IU of beta-carotene and 3.33 IU of retinol. The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for vitamin A for adult males is 1000 RE and for adult women, 800 RE.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is essential for proper metabolism of calcium, which is primarily responsible for the healthy growth of bones and teeth.

Vitamin D is fat soluble and therefore excessive intake can be toxic. It is consumed chiefly as an addition to milk and is also manufactured by the body by a reaction of sunlight on sterols present in the skin.

The major deficiency disease of vitamin D in children is rickets (deformation of the skeleton) and in adults excessive bone loss and fractures.

The RDA for adults over 24 is 5 mi-crograms.

Vitamin E (tocopherol)

Vitamin E is essential for healthy nerve function and reproduction.

Vitamin E is found principally in plant oils, particularly wheat germ oil and nuts. It is fat soluble, but there is little danger of toxicity because absorption by the body is relatively inefficient.

Vitamin E is measured in tocopherol equivalents (TE). The RDA for adult males is 10 TE and for adult women 8 TE. Deficiencies in a normal diet are rare.

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is essential for proper clotting of the blood.

Vitamin K is fat soluble and is found primarily in green leafy vegetables. Another form of the compound is synthesized by intestinal bacteria. Like vitamin E, there is little danger from ingesting too much vitamin K, and most diets provide an adequate supply.

The RDA for adult males over age 24 is 80 micrograms and for adult women 65 micrograms.

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Vitamin C is essential for healthy skin, bones, teeth, and muscles, for producing and maintaining collagen, and for fighting infection.

Vitamin C is water soluble and therefore must be ingested every day. It is widely available in a variety of colorful fruits and vegetables, such as peppers, broccoli, cabbage, oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes. Unfortunately, vitamin C is also the most unstable of all vitamins and minerals: it is easily destroyed by heat and oxygen, and thus care should be taken in cooking and storing of fruits and vegetables.

The classic vitamin C deficiency disease is scurvy, typified by the wasting away of muscles, wounds and bruises that don’t heal, and bleeding, deteriorating gums. Milder forms of vitamin C deficiency produce milder versions of these symptoms. Vitamin C deficiency has also been linked to such health problems as the common cold, anemia, atherosclerosis, asthma, cancer of the stomach and esophagus, infertility in males, rheumatoid arthritis, and cataracts.

Vitamin C is measured in milligrams (mg). The RDA for adults is 60 mg. Megadoses of vitamin C are often recommended to fight colds or as a general preventive measure against disease, although the body only uses as much as it needs; the rest is excreted in the urine. Toxicity is rarely a problem.

Thiamin (vitamin B 1 )

Thiamin is essential for the proper metabolism of carbohydrates and for a healthy nervous system.

Thiamin is water soluble and is found primarily in cereals, wheat germ, port, and nuts. It is strongly susceptible to destruction during cooking. Deficiency is not common among the general population, but studies have shown heavy drinkers, pregnant women, and the elderly to be more deficient. Severe thiamin deficiency results in beriberi, a disease that weakens the body, disables the mind, and permanently damages the heart. Symptoms of deficiency include loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, constipation, depression, fatigue, poor eye-hand coordination, irritability, headaches, and anxiety.

Thiamin is measured in milligrams. The RDA for adult males is 1.5 mg and for adult women 1.1 mg. Danger of toxicity is rare as excess thiamin is excreted in urine.

Riboflavin (vitamin B 2 )

Riboflavin is essential for growth and repair of tissues and aids in DNA synthesis. It helps metabolize proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.

Most Americans get plenty of this water-soluble vitamin, which is readily found in liver, eggs, and milk products. Studies have found that children in low-income families, however, are less likely to get enough riboflavin. Signs of deficiency include a purplish-colored tongue; cracks at the corners of the mouth; sores and burning of the lips, mouth, and tongue; itchy inflamed eyelids; flaky skin around the nose, ears, eyebrows, or hairline; and light sensitivity of eyes. Deficiency in riboflavin often means deficiency in other B vitamins as well. Cataracts, birth defects, and anemia have been linked to riboflavin deficiency.

Unlike vitamin C and thiamin, riboflavin is not easily destroyed by cooking, although adding baking soda to vegetables when cooking creates an alkaline solution that destroys it. Risk of toxicity is very low, and excess riboflavin is excreted in the urine.

Riboflavin is measured in milligrams. The RDA for adult males is 1.7 mg and for adult women 1.3 mg.

Niacin (vitamin B 3 )

Niacin is essential for the release of energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins and for the formation of DNA.

Most Americans get plenty of niacin from their diets; only heavy drinkers are at risk of deficiency. Severe deficiencies of niacin result in pellagra, a disease virtually wiped out in the United States since the 1930s with the advent of fortified flour and cereals with the vitamin.

Niacin is widely available in a variety of plant and animal foods, including fish, liver, turkey, cereals, and peanuts. The body is also able to convert the amino acid tryptophan into niacin, and thus proteins high in tryptophan also provide plenty of niacin.

Niacin in measure in milligrams (60 mg of tryptophan equal 1 mg of niacin). The RDA for adult males is 19 mg. and for women 15 mg.

Vitamin B 6

Vitamin B 6 is essential for fat and carbohydrate metabolism and for the formation and breakdown of amino acids. It also helps regulate blood glucose levels and is needed to synthesize hemoglobin.

Vitamin B 6 occurs in three forms: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxam-ine, which are converted by the body into pyridoxal phosphate and pyridox-amine phosphate. It is most readily found in nuts, kidney, liver, eggs, pork, poultry, dried fruits, and fish.

Although few Americans get the full RDA of vitamin B 6 , there is no evidence of corresponding overt deficiency symptoms. The following health problems, however, have been linked to B 6 deficiency: asthma, carpal tunnel syndrome, cancer (melanoma, breast, and bladder), diabetes, coronary heart disease, premenstrual syndrome, sickle-cell anemia, and aging and dementia.

In moderate doses B 6 is not toxic. Although excessive amounts of this water-soluble vitamin are to a great extent flushed out of the body in the urine, high doses have produced neurological disturbances such as numbness in the hands, feet, and mouth.

Vitamin B 6 is measured in milligrams. The RDA for adult men is 2 mg and for women 1.6 mg.

 

Recommended Dietary Allowances for Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

Recommended Dietary Allowances for Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vit. A Vit. D Vit. E Vit. K
Age (meg RE) (meg) (mgTE) (meg)
Infants 0 to .5 375 7.5 3 5
.5 to 1 10 4 10
Children 1 to 3 400 6 15
4 to 6 500 7 20
7 to 10 700 30
Males 11 to 14 1,000 10 45
15 to 18 65
19 to 24 70
25 to 50 5 80
51 +
Females 11 to 14 800 10 8 45
15 to 18 55
19 to 24 60
25 to 50 5 65
51 +
Pregnant 10 10
Nursing 1st 6 months 1,300 12
2nd 6 months 1,200 11

Vitamin B 12

Vitamin B 12 is important for normal growth, healthy nerve tissue, and normal blood formation.

Most Americans get plenty of B 12 . It is found chiefly in animal foods: meat, fish, eggs, and milk products. Only strict vegetarians (vegans), who eat none of these foods are in danger of deficiency. Problems for everyone arise with age, however; the stomach may become less able to absorb B 12 and deficiency may result. Pernicious anemia is the classic B 12 deficiency disease and may take years to appear. Other health problems that may be linked to B 12 deficiency include infertility, nervous system disorders, and walking difficulties.

Cooking results in few losses of B 12 , and toxicity is not a danger. The RDA for B 12 for adults is 2 micrograms.

Folacin (folic acid, or folate)

Folacin is essential for cell growth and division.

Women, especially pregnant women, and alcoholics are most likely to be folacin deficient. Signs of deficiency include anemia, weakness, pallor, headaches, forgetfulness, sleeplessness, and irritability. Vitamin B 12 deficiency can aggravate folacin deficiency because B 12 is essential to release folacin from bodily storage. Other health problems that may be associated with folacin deficiency include depression, dementia, neuropsychological disorders, toxemia of pregnancy, infections, and fetal damage.

Folacin is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, but it is easily destroyed during cooking and storage. The RDA for folacin for adult men is 200 micrograms and for women, 180 micrograms.

Biotin

Biotin is essential for overall growth and well-being. It is important in the metabolism of fats and in the utilization of carbon dioxide.

The best sources of biotin are liver, egg yolks, soy flour, cereals, and yeast. It is also produced by intestinal bacteria, although it is not known whether this form is readily absorbed by the body. Deficiencies are most often produced by the ingestion of large amount of raw egg white, which contains a biotin-binding protein called avidin that prevents the absorption of biotin. Symptoms of deficiency include nausea, vomiting, swelling of the tongue, pallor, depression, hair loss, and dry scaly dermatitis.

 

Recommended Dietary Allowances for Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

Recommended Dietary Allowances for Water-Soluble Vitamins
Age Vit. C Thiamin Riboflav. Niacin Vit. B6 Folate Vit. B12
(mg) (mg) (mg) (mg) (mg) (meg) (meg)
Infants 0 to .5 30 0.3 0.4 5 0.3 25 0.3
.5 to 1 35 0.4 0.5 6 0.6 35 0.5
Children 1 to 3 40 0.7 0.8 9 1 50 0.7
4 to 6 45 0.9 1.1 12 1.1 75 1
7 to 10 1 1.2 13 1.4 100 1.4
Males 11 to 14 50 1.3 1.5 17 1.7 150 2
15 to 18 60 1.5 1.8 20 2 200
19 to 24 1.7 19
25 to 50
51 + 1.2 1.4 15 150
Females 11 to 14 50 1.1 1.3 1.4 180
15 to 18 60 1.5
19 to 24 1.6
25 to 50 1.1
51 + 1 1.2 13
Pregnant 70 1.5 1.6 17 2.2 400 2.2
Nursing 1st 6 months 95 1.6 1.8 20 2.1 280 2.6
2nd 6 months 90 1.7 20 260

The RDA for adults is a wide range: from 30 to 100 micrograms. Toxicity from a normal diet is not a concern.

Pantothenic acid

Pantothenic acid is essential for general growth and well-being. It is an important component in a number of metabolic reactions such as the release of energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins and the synthesis of sterols and steroid hormones.

Pantothenic acid is widely distributed among foods, chiefly animal tissues, cereals, and legumes. Evidence of dietary deficiency of pantothenic acid has not been clinically recognized in humans, and there is no specific disease associated with pantothenic acid deficiency.

Pantothenic acid is measured in milligrams. There is no RDA, but daily consumption by adults of between 4 and 7 mg is considered safe. Toxicity from a normal diet is not a concern.

Minerals

Minerals are another component of basic nutritional needs. All living things extract them from the soil, which is their ultimate source. Like vitamins, they are needed for normal metabolism and must be present in the diet in sufficient amounts for the maintenance of good health. The essential minerals are calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iodine, iron, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, copper, manganese, fluoride, and chromium.

Calcium

Calcium is essential for bone growth, development, and retention as well as for proper nerve conduction, muscle contraction, blood clotting, and membrane permeability.

Dairy products are the primary sources of calcium, but the mineral is also found in green leafy vegetables and soft bones, such as those of sardines and salmon. Maximum calcium ingestion is extremely important during the years from birth to age 25, when the body reaches its peak bone mass. Deficiencies are most common in women and have been linked to the development of osteoporosis in the later years.

The RDA for calcium for children between the ages of 11 and 24 is 1,200 mg. For adults over 24 the RDA is 800 mg. Ingestion of very large amounts of calcium may inhibit the absorption of iron, zinc, and other essential minerals.

Phosphorus

Phosphorus is a structural component of all cells. It is a part of DNA, and is therefore essential in the growth, maintenance, and repair of all body tissues. It is also critical for energy transfer and production.

Phosphorus is present in nearly all foods, principally cereals and proteins. Deficiency is a serious concern only for premature infants fed exclusively human milk.

The RDA for phosphorus is the same as that for calcium. Toxicity from a normal diet is not a concern.

Magnesium

Like phosphorus, magnesium is a structural component in soft tissue cells and is therefore important in the growth, maintenance, and repair of these tissues. It is also important in energy production, lipid and protein synthesis, the formation of urea, muscle relaxation, and in the prevention of tooth decay.

The best sources of magnesium are nuts, legumes, unmilled grains, and green vegetables. Deficiencies from a normal diet are rare and are related instead to various diseases such as those of the gastrointestinal tract, kidney dysfunction, and malnutrition and alcoholism. Symptoms of deficiency include weakness, confusion, personality changes, muscle tremor, nausea, lack of coordination, and gastrointestinal disorders.

The RDA for adult men is 350 mg and for adult women 280 mg.

Iodine

Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormone, which is important in cellular reactions, metabolism, and growth and development.

Iodized salt and water are the most common sources, and most animal foods contain adequate supplies depending on the soil quality and the amount of iodine added to animal feeds. Iodine is also added in the processing of bread dough. Deficiencies in the United States is not common. The classic deficiency disease in adults is goiter. Iodine deficient fetuses are at a risk of developing cretinism.

The RDA for iodine for adults is 150 micrograms.

Iron

As an essential component of hemoglobin, iron is necessary for the proper transfer of oxygen to cells. It is also important for energy production and collagen synthesis.

Many Americans don’t get enough iron. Women and very young children get the least, followed by the elderly. Iron deficiency leads to anemia: muscles become weak, fatigue, listlessness, and a tendency to tire easily set in. Even mild iron deficiency, however, can affect a person’s intellectual capabilities, especially children’s. Symptoms of deficiency in children include irritability, hyperactivity, learning problems, shortened attention span, poor motivation, and poor intellectual performance.

There are two types of iron, heme and nonheme. Heme comes from animal foods and is much more readily absorbed than nonheme iron, which comes from vegetables. When eaten together, however, the rate of absorption for nonheme iron increases significantly. Also, iron eaten with just a little vitamin C dramatically increases its absorption. Tannins (in tea and red wine) block iron absorption. Iron-rich foods include liver and other organ meats, beef, dried fruits, legumes, dark green leafy vegetables, prune juice, and whole grain cereals.

The RDA for adult males is 10 mg and for adult women 15 mg. There is little danger of toxicity from a normal diet, although some people have an inherited defect in regulating iron absorption and can easily get too much.

Zinc

Zinc is essential for cell multiplication, tissue regeneration, sexual maturity, and proper growth. It is also important as a cofactor in more than 20 enzymatic reactions and serves as a binder in many others.

Severe zinc deficiency is not a problem in the United States, but the effects of mild deficiency—common especially in children, women, and the elderly—on overall health are feared to be widespread. Signs of deficiency include loss of appetite, stunted growth in children, skin changes, small sex glands in boys, delayed sexual maturation, impotence, loss of taste sensitivity, white spots on fingernails, delayed wound-healing, dull hair color.

Animal foods are good sources of zinc as are oysters, milk, egg yolks, and whole grains. Toxicity is rare. The RDA for adults is 12 mg.

Selenium

Selenium functions in a similar way to vitamin E, as an antioxidant helping to protect cells from destruction by toxic agents. Its consumption has also been associated with lower incidences of cancer and heart disease.

Good sources of selenium include whole grains, seafood, liver, kidney, meat, seeds, and nuts. Deficiency may be a problem in areas with selenium-poor soils. Selenium is toxic at higher than trace amounts. The RDA for adult males is 70 micrograms and for adult women 55 micrograms.

Molybdenum

Molybdenum is essential in the function of certain enzyme systems and is also necessary in iron metabolism.

Sources of molybdenum include meats, whole grains, legumes, leafy vegetables, and organ meats. The molybdenum content of vegetables varies widely depending on the content of the soil in which they were grown. Deficiency is not known in humans. Ingesting more than trace amounts is not recommended. The RDA for adults is between 75 and 250 micrograms.

Copper

Copper is important as a cofactor in several enzyme systems and as a catalyst in the synthesis of hemoglobin. It also aids in collagen formation and is involved in the synthesis of phospholipids, which maintain health nerve fibers.

Copper deficiency is believed to be more common than once thought, and it has been linked to heart disease, central nervous system disorders, anemia, and bone disorders. Good sources of copper include shellfish, liver, nuts and seeds, meats, and green leafy vegetables. Copper supplements are not recommended because they can interfere with other minerals, and copper is toxic at more than trace amounts. The RDA for copper is 1.5 to 3 mg.

Manganese

Manganese has a variety of functions, some that other minerals can perform in its place. It is known to play a role in such things as collagen formation, urea formation, synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, digestion of proteins, normal bone formation and development, and protein synthesis.

Manganese deficiency has not been observed in humans. Sources of manganese include liver, kidney, spinach, whole grain cereals and breads, dried peas and beans, and nuts. Excessive intake of manganese can interfere with iron absorption. More than trace amounts of manganese are not recommended. The RDA is 2 to 5 mg.

Fluoride

Fluoride is essential for the development of healthy teeth and bones and the prevention of tooth decay.

Fluoride deficiency shows up in increased incidences of tooth decay. Fluoridated water is a most common source of fluoride for many people. For those without access to such water fluoride tablets or toothpaste are helpful. Fish, tea, milk, and eggs are also sources of fluoride. The RDA for adults is between 1.5 and 4 mg.

Chromium

Chromium is important for maintaining normal glucose metabolism. It also acts as a cofactor for insulin.

Chromium deficiency can show up in the form of glucose intolerance in malnourished children and in some diabetics. Sources of chromium include whole grains, brewer’s yeast, meats, and cheeses. Hard water also contains chromium. Chromium intake should not exceed trace amounts. The RDA for adults is between 50 and 200 micrograms.

Fiber

Fiber in the diet is important for proper elimination. It provides bulk, and its use has been linked to the prevention of many health problems: constipation, appendicitis, colon cancer, diverticular disease, spastic colon, hiatal hernia, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, gallstones, diabetes, obesity, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease.

Fiber is found almost exclusively in plant foods and comes in basically two types: water soluble or water insoluble. Soluble fiber is found primarily in fruits and vegetables and in oat bran in the form of gums and pectin and affects the way the body metabolizes sugars and fats. Insoluble fiber is primarily associated with whole grains, the traditional ‘bran,’ such as wheat bran and rice bran, and is the fiber we think of when we think of laxatives. Generally, the less processed the food, the higher it is in either kind of fiber.

Fiber in high doses can affect the absorption of other vitamins and minerals as well as cause flatulence, bloating, nausea, diarrhea, and impaction or rupture of the bowl. Daily consumption of 35 to 40 grams of fiber is recommended for optimum health and safety.

Water

Water is not really a food in the fuel sense, but it is in many ways a crucial component of nutrition: the body’s need for water is second only to its need for oxygen. It makes up from 55 to 65 percent of the body’s weight, and is constantly being eliminated in the form of urine, perspiration, and expired breath. It must therefore be replaced regularly, for while a person can live for weeks without food, he can live for only a few days without water.

Normally, the best guide to how much water a person needs is his sense of thirst. The regulating mechanism of excretion sees to it that an excessive intake of water will be eliminated as urine. The usual water requirement is on the order of two quarts a day in addition to whatever amount is contained in the solids which make up the daily diet.

Read more: http://www.faqs.org/health-encyc/Nutrition-and-Weight-Control/Nutrition-and-Weight-Control-Basic-nutritional-requirements.html#ixzz33LZWsSRN
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Februari 15, 2016

tak lekang oleh waktu: berlian naek daun … lage

Filed under: Investasi Umum — bumi2009fans @ 12:26 am

BANDUNG kontan. Kota Kembang menambah daya tariknya dengan wisata edukasi proses asah berlian. Pengelola Indo Wisata Permata, Yofi Mesa Yudi berharap, wisata asah berlian ini menambah destinasi Kota Bandung yang sudah terkenal untuk kulinernya.

Ditemui di sela-sela peluncuran wisata edukasi berlian di kawasan Kompleks Citra Green Blok N No-1-10 Kota Bandung, Minggu (14/2), Yofi mengatakan selama ini Indonesia dikenal sebagai penghasil berlian yang berkualitas. Namun, proses pengasahan dan pemotongannya masih tradisional sehingga kurang bersaing di pasar dunia.

“Mulai saat ini, kami membuka untuk umum bagi siapa saja pecinta permata untuk melihat langsung proses berlian mentah menjadi sebuah batu permata yang berkualitas dan bernilai tinggi dengan menggunakan mesin terbaik dan tenaga ahli yang terampil di bidangnya,” kata Yofi.

Dia mengatakan, wisatawan dapat melihat langsung proses pembuatan berlian yang dilakukan oleh tenaga terampil yang didatangkan dari India.

Menurut Yofi, berlian asal Indonesia khususnya Kalimantan memiliki mutu sebaik Afrika Selatan. Namun ,karena prosesnya masih dilakukan secara tradisional, batu mulia asal Indonesia kurang bersaing di dunia.

Yofi mengajak wisatawan berbagi pengetahuan melihat langsung proses pembuatan berlian dari awal hingga akhir yang hanya dibatasi dengan kaca tembus pandang.

“Tidak ada yang dirahasiakan di sini. Kalau karena dari awal bahan baku batu permata menjadi berlian kualitas wahid bisa disaksikan langsung dari dekat,” ujar dia.

Yofi juga berkeinginan untuk mengangkat berlian Indonesia di dunia internasional dan dengan harga yang bersaing. “Khusus di Bandung wisatawan bia memilih berlian berkualitas tinggi dengan harga Rp 1 juta hingga R p1 miliar,” katanya.

Menurut dia, ini merupakan lokasi wisata edukasi permata pertama di Asia.

“Jika datang ke negara lain, memang ada wisata seperti ini. Namun di sana tidak diperlihatkan secara terbuka tentang proses pengerjaan berlian mulai dari bongkahan hingga berlian yang indah,” katanya.

Di sini, kata dia, pihaknya juga ingin memberi edukasi kepada masyarakat, agar tidak asal beli saja dengan harga mahal. “Untuk datang ke lokasi wisata ini, pengunjung hanya perlu membayar Rp 50.000 dan akan memperoleh voucher dengan senilai harga tiket tersebut. Nantinya voucher tersebut bisa ditukarkan dengan makanan atau minuman yang disediakan di lokasi tersebut,” tukas Yofi.

Sementara itu sejumlah penggemar dan pecinta berlian menyambut antusias dibukanya wisata edukasi berlian tersebut karena dengan destinasi wisata baru ini, para pecinta berlian bisa mengetahui proses pembuatan batu permata secara terbuka.

“Di sini berbeda dengan kita melihat di toko berlian. Kita bisa mengetahui secara langsung proses pembuatan berlian mulai dari tahap awal hingga akhir. Semua diperlihatkan kepada kita,” ujar Yuni (40) salah seorang penggemar batu permata.

Dikatakan dia, di lokasi ini para pengunjung diberikan pengetahuan yang lebih banyak tentang berlian. “Hal itu jelas sangat berbeda jika kita hanya datang ke toko berlian atau toko emas permata,” tuturnya.

Sumber Antara

Diamonds to become an investor’s best friend
Tara Loader Wilkinson From: The Wall Street Journal November 23, 2009 11:09AM

THEY are rare, beautiful, valuable and a girl’s best friend but traditionally diamonds have not really been considered an asset class in their own right.

Diamonds do not have the “safe haven” status of gold, and their prices are more volatile than the precious metal.

While spot gold has gained about 25 per cent in value this year, diamond prices have fallen by at least 10 per cent, in line with the poor performance of the luxury industry, according to US-based IDEX Online Diamond Prices, which tracks global asking prices for polished diamonds.

Some jewellery experts remain doubtful about investing in diamonds. David Bennett, Geneva-based chairman of jewellery for Europe and the Middle East at Sotheby’s, says: “Like art, we would not advise someone to buy diamonds for investment purposes. People should buy diamonds for the joy of wearing them.” But the growing demand for tangible assets and portfolio diversification has led to the launch of several diamond investment funds this year, which believe they can achieve double-digit returns for investors.

This 62-carat diamond sold for $US8m at a Christies sale in Geneva this month. Picture: AFP

In March, alternative investment manager KPR Capital launched a Cayman Islands-domiciled open-ended investment diamond fund with a minimum buy in of $US250,000 ($273,000).

A few weeks earlier, Alfa Capital, the Russian investment group, launched a diamond investment fund with a minimum investment of E1 million ($1.6m) and an estimated yield of 15 per cent to 17 per cent.

This month the Emotional Assets Fund was launched, investing in assets from fine art and rare stamps to diamonds and diamond jewellery. The fund is targeting an annual growth rate of 15 per cent with a minimum investment of pound stg. 100,000 ($180,500).

Dazzling Capital, a London-based company investing directly in period jewellery, also opened its doors this month, co-founded by former Christie’s auctioneer Humphrey Butler, with former jockey and chartered accountant William Sporborg and Christopher Holdsworth Hunt, co-founder of City of London brokerage KBC Peel Hunt.

The company, which accepts a minimum investment of pound stg. 10,000 with an estimated return on investment of 11 per cent, counts Madeleine Lloyd Webber, wife of British composer Andrew Lloyd Webber, as one of its investors.

Others say diamonds are too niche to gain a significant following. Swiss & Global Asset Management head of equities, Scilla Huang Sun, says her company does not have a diamond fund because the topic is too narrow to merit a fund of its own. Instead, the company includes diamond jewellery in its luxury fund.

Diamond trading is growing in sophistication. Until recently gems have been considered an illiquid asset. Auctions are rare and gem valuation was considered more of an art than a science. But in January the Dealers Organisation for Diamond Automated Quotes, an online diamond exchange, was launched, managed by Dutch bank ABN Amro.

The Belgium-based DODAQ exchange attempts to surmount other traditional barriers to investment in the diamond market, such as high sales fees and low liquidity, and offers two-way auctions for polished diamonds, the first cash market for the gems.

Diamond funds provide diversification benefits by investing in a range of pieces, but many investors may want to buy their own diamonds – not least because they get to wear the jewellery when they want. Certain gems retain value better than others.

“If you want to buy diamonds for investment purposes, they should be big and fancy (colourful),” says Holly Midwinter-Porter, a gemologist at British jeweller Boodles. “Red and green are the rarest and, unlike white, man-made diamonds, are finite as they are only found in one or two areas in the world.”

She says returns on rare diamonds can enjoy double-digit growth a year, and their portability makes them more appealing than gold or art.

Another option for investors is the vintage diamond jewellery market – considered capable of more lucrative returns because of the added value of provenance. Mr Butler brokered a $US4.5m deal with the Louvre in 2004 for an antique emerald and diamond necklace and earrings.

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