eK0n0mi taK seriU$ d/h ekonomitakserius@blogspot.com

Maret 29, 2015

lapangDADA: p1l0t n D3PR3$1 … 290315

Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY,Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 12:38 am

Tragedi Germanwings, Kopilot Sedang Patah Hati?

TEMPO.CO, Berlin – Kopilot yang diduga sengaja menjatuhkan pesawat penerbangan Germanwings 4U9525 di Pegunungan Alpen, Prancis, pernah mengalami krisis personal dalam hubungan asmaranya dengan sang pacar, demikian menurut Bild Zeitung, media Jerman. Pesawat itu jatuh di Prancis. Dalam insiden itu, sebanyak 150 orang tewas.

Namun peristiwa itu terjadi enam tahun lalu. Lufthansa, perusahaan induk dari Germanwings, mengkonfirmasi bahwa Andreas Lubitz, 27 tahun, sempat berhenti dari penerbangan enam tahun yang lalu. Lufthansa meyakinkan bahwa pria ini lulus semua tes fisik dan psikologis, sehingga dianggap 100 persen fit untuk terbang.

Atas dugaan patah hati inilah, tulis Bild Zeitung, penyidik polisi turut menyelidiki krisis kehidupan pribadi yang dialami Lubitz. Polisi mendalami apakah dia sedang mengalami permasalahan emosional dalam hubungan pribadinya. Teman-teman Lubitz membenarkan peristiwa patah hati itu. Namun, kata mereka, Lubitz telah pulih.

Catatan medis Lubitz di Lufthansa menunjukkan bahwa ia sempat berhenti mengikuti pelatihan di Lufthansa Flight School Arizona selama beberapa bulan pada 2009 karena mengalami masalah psikologis. Surat kabar Jerman ini merujuk keterangan seseorang di Lufthansa yang tidak disebutkan namanya.

“Dia menjalani perawatan psikiatris selama 18 bulan dan berulang kali gagal melaju ke tingkat yang lebih tinggi dalam pelatihan pilot karena depresi, meskipun ia telah berhasil menyelesaikan kursus,” tulis Bild Zeitung. Catatannya pada otoritas penerbangan Jerman, Luftfahrt Bundesamt, menunjukkan masalah psikologis dan catatannya ditandai dengan kode “SIC” yang berarti ‘secara khusus dan teratur mengikuti pemeriksaan kesehatan’ yang dilakukan oleh dokter.

Namun, Lubitz baru-baru ini dipuji karena “menjadi contoh positif” untuk pilot-pilot lain ketika ia terdaftar di database bergengsi percontohan Amerika, yang memasukkan nama-nama pilot yang tidak memiliki kondisi medis tertentu, termasuk penyakit kesehatan mental.

Keterangan pada Sertifikat Databes Penerbang dari Federal Aviation Administration yang bergengsi itu mengatakan Lubitz telah memenuhi dan melampaui pendidikan tinggi FAA, perizinan, dan standar medis. FAA, badan yang berbasis di Amerika, memiliki standar yang dianggap salah satu yang tertinggi di dunia.

Pilot yang dinyatakan lulus pemeriksaan fisik dan psikologis harus dites oleh pemeriksa medis FAA. Ada beberapa kondisi medis yang FAA anggap seorang pilot layak didiskualifikasi, seperti gangguan bipolar, gangguan kepribadian, psikosis, penyalahgunaan zat dan obat-obatan terlarang, atau gangguan kesadaran tanpa penjelasan yang masuk akal.

THE AGE | MECHOS DE LAROCHA

 

guardian : Every day pilots assume responsibility for hundreds of lives. But the tests airlines use to assess qualified pilots’ mental and psychological fitness for the job vary from country to country, are invariably perfunctory and can never perfectly predict how an individual will behave in particular circumstances on any given day.

A French prosecutor’s allegation that the Germanwings co-pilot Andreas Lubitz deliberately flew flight 4U9525 into a mountainside, along with German media reports that he suffered from severe depression, had undergone psychiatric treatment and had a sicknote covering the day of the crash, have put the question of in-service pilot screening under scrutiny.

The International Civil Aviation Authority, the UN’s air safety body, is specific about screening procedures before and during training but lays down few rules for psychological testing after a pilot has qualified, advising only that medical reviews should “include questions pertaining to psychiatric disorders or inappropriate use of psychoactive substances”. Its guidance is not binding.

As a result, testing procedures vary widely. Few national authorities carry out formal psychometric tests. In the UK, the medical examination – carried out by a specialist aviation doctor every six or 12 months, depending on the pilot’s age – does contain a psychological component, but most of it is physiological: height, weight, heart, blood, urine, eyesight. Technical ability is tested on a simulator.

But as in most countries, the only psychological element required by the Civil Aviation Authority is an interview in which pilots are asked “general questions” about their mood, family relations, sleep patterns and alcohol use, and whether they have suffered any recent episodes of depression or suicidal feelings.

America’s Federal Aviation Authority requires pilots to disclose any mental disorders along with other health issues during their annual or biannual medical (aircrew aged over 40 undergo the exam twice a year; under 40s once), and the doctor conducting the examination can order formal psychological testing if he or she thinks it necessary.
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Pilots in most countries are required by law to report any mental health problems themselves, and industry experts say the fact that flight crews spend long periods in such close proximity to each other means potential problems that may be observed in colleagues – for example, stress or family or financial issues – get picked up, reported and usually treated appropriately.

Lufthansa, Germanwings’ parent company, is widely seen as having one of the best recruitment screening programmes in the industry, carrying out in-depth interviews and psychological testing before candidates can begin its two-year pilot training programme and filtering out more than 90% of initial applicants.

While it, too, has no formal psychological testing programme once pilots have qualified, the company has a generally effective self-monitoring and reporting system. This actively encourages pilots who experience potential problems themselves or observe them in their colleagues to report them to the airline without fear of repercussion. No such report was filed in relation to Lubitz.

In the wake of the crash in the French Alps, calls for an overhaul of psychological screening procedures have multiplied. “Following the details that have emerged regarding the tragic Germanwings incident, we are coordinating closely with colleagues at the European Aviation Safety Agency and have contacted all UK operators and asked them to review all relevant procedures,” Britain’s CAA said in a statement.

But many experts doubt whether more frequent and intensive psychological testing would be completely effective. Prof Robert Bor, the author of Aviation Mental Health, advised the FAA on an incident in March 2012 in which the co-pilot of a JetBlue flight to Las Vegas had to lock the captain out of the cockpit because of his erratic behaviour.

“We concluded that nothing could have prevented that incident from happening,” Bor told the BBC, adding that even the most exhaustive psychometric testing could not predict how an individual would wake up feeling on a particular day, or prevent all cases in which someone is determined to abuse their position of power.

Hans-Werner Teichmüller, president of the Deutsche Fliegerarztverband, an association of German doctors who examine pilots and flight crew, said reports that Lubitz had a sicknote for the day of the flight were incomprehensible. “It’s utterly irresponsible that he flew even though he had a certificate saying he was unfit to fly.”

But he too said no amount of testing could ever be completely effective. “A pilot who intends to do something like this could be skilful enough to pass as a well-structured person, even if they were in danger of suicide,” he said. “Even with an examination process, you wouldn’t have 100% safety.”

Ultimately, the best guarantee of in-flight safety, many experts concur, may be the “rule of two” – common in the US but introduced by many other airlines only on Thursday, and on Friday by Lufthansa and its subsidiaries – which requires at least two qualified crew members to be in the cockpit at all times.

 

Everyone occasionally feels blue or sad. But these feelings are usually short-lived and pass within a couple of days. When you have depression, it interferes with daily life and causes pain for both you and those who care about you. Depression is a common but serious illness.Many people with a depressive illness never seek treatment. But the majority, even those with the most severe depression, can get better with treatment. Medications, psychotherapies, and other methods can effectively treat people with depression.There are several forms of depressive disorders.

Major depression,—severe symptoms that interfere with your ability to work, sleep, study, eat, and enjoy life. An episode can occur only once in a person’s lifetime, but more often, a person has several episodes.

Persistent depressive disorder—depressed mood that lasts for at least 2 years. A person diagnosed with persistent depressive disorder may have episodes of major depression along with periods of less severe symptoms, but symptoms must last for 2 years.

Some forms of depression are slightly different, or they may develop under unique circumstances. They include:

  • Psychotic depression, which occurs when a person has severe depression plus some form of psychosis, such as having disturbing false beliefs or a break with reality (delusions), or hearing or seeing upsetting things that others cannot hear or see (hallucinations).
  • Postpartum depression, which is much more serious than the “baby blues” that many women experience after giving birth, when hormonal and physical changes and the new responsibility of caring for a newborn can be overwhelming. It is estimated that 10 to 15 percent of women experience postpartum depression after giving birth.
  • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), which is characterized by the onset of depression during the winter months, when there is less natural sunlight. The depression generally lifts during spring and summer. SAD may be effectively treated with light therapy, but nearly half of those with SAD do not get better with light therapy alone. Antidepressant medication and psychotherapy can reduce SAD symptoms, either alone or in combination with light therapy.

Bipolar disorder, also called manic-depressive illness, is not as common as major depression or persistent depressive disorder. Bipolar disorder is characterized by cycling mood changes—from extreme highs (e.g., mania) to extreme lows (e.g., depression).

Causes

Most likely, depression is caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors.

Depressive illnesses are disorders of the brain. Brain-imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have shown that the brains of people who have depression look different than those of people without depression. The parts of the brain involved in mood, thinking, sleep, appetite, and behavior appear different. But these images do not reveal why the depression has occurred. They also cannot be used to diagnose depression.

Some types of depression tend to run in families. However, depression can occur in people without family histories of depression too. Scientists are studying certain genes that may make some people more prone to depression. Some genetics research indicates that risk for depression results from the influence of several genes acting together with environmental or other factors. In addition, trauma, loss of a loved one, a difficult relationship, or any stressful situation may trigger a depressive episode. Other depressive episodes may occur with or without an obvious trigger.

Signs & Symptoms

“It was really hard to get out of bed in the morning. I just wanted to hide under the covers and not talk to anyone. I didn’t feel much like eating and I lost a lot of weight. Nothing seemed fun anymore. I was tired all the time, and I wasn’t sleeping well at night. But I knew I had to keep going because I’ve got kids and a job. It just felt so impossible, like nothing was going to change or get better.”

People with depressive illnesses do not all experience the same symptoms. The severity, frequency, and duration of symptoms vary depending on the individual and his or her particular illness.

Signs and symptoms include:

  • Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” feelings
  • Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism
  • Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness
  • Irritability, restlessness
  • Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurable, including sex
  • Fatigue and decreased energy
  • Difficulty concentrating, remembering details, and making decisions
  • Insomnia, early-morning wakefulness, or excessive sleeping
  • Overeating, or appetite loss
  • Thoughts of suicide, suicide attempts
  • Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems that do not ease even with treatment.

Who Is At Risk?

Major depressive disorder is one of the most common mental disorders in the United States. Each year about 6.7% of U.S adults experience major depressive disorder. Women are 70 % more likely than men to experience depression during their lifetime.  Non-Hispanic blacks are 40% less likely than non-Hispanic whites to experience depression during their lifetime.  The average age of onset is 32 years old. Additionally, 3.3% of 13 to 18 year olds have experienced a seriously debilitating depressive disorder.

Diagnosis

“I started missing days from work, and a friend noticed that something wasn’t right. She talked to me about the time she had been really depressed and had gotten help from her doctor.”

Depression, even the most severe cases, can be effectively treated. The earlier that treatment can begin, the more effective it is.

The first step to getting appropriate treatment is to visit a doctor or mental health specialist. Certain medications, and some medical conditions such as viruses or a thyroid disorder, can cause the same symptoms as depression. A doctor can rule out these possibilities by doing a physical exam, interview, and lab tests. If the doctor can find no medical condition that may be causing the depression, the next step is a psychological evaluation.

The doctor may refer you to a mental health professional, who should discuss with you any family history of depression or other mental disorder, and get a complete history of your symptoms. You should discuss when your symptoms started, how long they have lasted, how severe they are, and whether they have occurred before and if so, how they were treated. The mental health professional may also ask if you are using alcohol or drugs, and if you are thinking about death or suicide.

Other illnesses may come on before depression, cause it, or be a consequence of it. But depression and other illnesses interact differently in different people. In any case, co-occurring illnesses need to be diagnosed and treated.

Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder, often accompany depression. PTSD can occur after a person experiences a terrifying event or ordeal, such as a violent assault, a natural disaster, an accident, terrorism or military combat. People experiencing PTSD are especially prone to having co-existing depression.

Alcohol and other substance abuse or dependence may also co-exist with depression. Research shows that mood disorders and substance abuse commonly occur together.

Depression also may occur with other serious medical illnesses such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, HIV/AIDS, diabetes, and Parkinson’s disease. People who have depression along with another medical illness tend to have more severe symptoms of both depression and the medical illness, more difficulty adapting to their medical condition, and more medical costs than those who do not have co-existing depression. Treating the depression can also help improve the outcome of treating the co-occurring illness.

Treatments

Once diagnosed, a person with depression can be treated in several ways. The most common treatments are medication and psychotherapy.

Medication

Antidepressants primarily work on brain chemicals called neurotransmitters, especially serotonin and norepinephrine. Other antidepressants work on the neurotransmitter dopamine. Scientists have found that these particular chemicals are involved in regulating mood, but they are unsure of the exact ways that they work. The latest information on medications for treating depression is available on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website .

Popular newer antidepressants

Some of the newest and most popular antidepressants are called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), escitalopram (Lexapro), paroxetine (Paxil), and citalopram (Celexa) are some of the most commonly prescribed SSRIs for depression. Most are available in generic versions. Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are similar to SSRIs and include venlafaxine (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta).

SSRIs and SNRIs tend to have fewer side effects than older antidepressants, but they sometimes produce headaches, nausea, jitters, or insomnia when people first start to take them. These symptoms tend to fade with time. Some people also experience sexual problems with SSRIs or SNRIs, which may be helped by adjusting the dosage or switching to another medication.

One popular antidepressant that works on dopamine is bupropion (Wellbutrin). Bupropion tends to have similar side effects as SSRIs and SNRIs, but it is less likely to cause sexual side effects. However, it can increase a person’s risk for seizures.

Tricyclics

Tricyclics are older antidepressants. Tricyclics are powerful, but they are not used as much today because their potential side effects are more serious. They may affect the heart in people with heart conditions. They sometimes cause dizziness, especially in older adults. They also may cause drowsiness, dry mouth, and weight gain. These side effects can usually be corrected by changing the dosage or switching to another medication. However, tricyclics may be especially dangerous if taken in overdose. Tricyclics include imipramine and nortriptyline.

MAOIs

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are the oldest class of antidepressant medications. They can be especially effective in cases of “atypical” depression, such as when a person experiences increased appetite and the need for more sleep rather than decreased appetite and sleep. They also may help with anxious feelings or panic and other specific symptoms.

However, people who take MAOIs must avoid certain foods and beverages (including cheese and red wine) that contain a substance called tyramine. Certain medications, including some types of birth control pills, prescription pain relievers, cold and allergy medications, and herbal supplements, also should be avoided while taking an MAOI. These substances can interact with MAOIs to cause dangerous increases in blood pressure. The development of a new MAOI skin patch may help reduce these risks. If you are taking an MAOI, your doctor should give you a complete list of foods, medicines, and substances to avoid.

MAOIs can also react with SSRIs to produce a serious condition called “serotonin syndrome,” which can cause confusion, hallucinations, increased sweating, muscle stiffness, seizures, changes in blood pressure or heart rhythm, and other potentially life-threatening conditions. MAOIs should not be taken with SSRIs.

How should I take medication?

All antidepressants must be taken for at least 4 to 6 weeks before they have a full effect. You should continue to take the medication, even if you are feeling better, to prevent the depression from returning.

Medication should be stopped only under a doctor’s supervision. Some medications need to be gradually stopped to give the body time to adjust. Although antidepressants are not habit-forming or addictive, suddenly ending an antidepressant can cause withdrawal symptoms or lead to a relapse of the depression. Some individuals, such as those with chronic or recurrent depression, may need to stay on the medication indefinitely.

In addition, if one medication does not work, you should consider trying another. NIMH-funded research has shown that people who did not get well after taking a first medication increased their chances of beating the depression after they switched to a different medication or added another medication to their existing one.

Sometimes stimulants, anti-anxiety medications, or other medications are used together with an antidepressant, especially if a person has a co-existing illness. However, neither anti-anxiety medications nor stimulants are effective against depression when taken alone, and both should be taken only under a doctor’s close supervision.

Report any unusual side effects to a doctor immediately.

FDA warning on antidepressants

Despite the relative safety and popularity of SSRIs and other antidepressants, studies have suggested that they may have unintentional effects on some people, especially adolescents and young adults. In 2004, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a thorough review of published and unpublished controlled clinical trials of antidepressants that involved nearly 4,400 children and adolescents. The review revealed that 4 percent of those taking antidepressants thought about or attempted suicide (although no suicides occurred), compared to 2 percent of those receiving placebos.

This information prompted the FDA, in 2005, to adopt a “black box” warning label on all antidepressant medications to alert the public about the potential increased risk of suicidal thinking or attempts in children and adolescents taking antidepressants. In 2007, the FDA proposed that makers of all antidepressant medications extend the warning to include young adults up through age 24. A “black box” warning is the most serious type of warning on prescription drug labeling.

The warning emphasizes that patients of all ages taking antidepressants should be closely monitored, especially during the initial weeks of treatment. Possible side effects to look for are worsening depression, suicidal thinking or behavior, or any unusual changes in behavior such as sleeplessness, agitation, or withdrawal from normal social situations. The warning adds that families and caregivers should also be told of the need for close monitoring and report any changes to the doctor. The latest information from the FDA can be found on their website .

Results of a comprehensive review of pediatric trials conducted between 1988 and 2006 suggested that the benefits of antidepressant medications likely outweigh their risks to children and adolescents with major depression and anxiety disorders.

What about St. John’s wort?

The extract from the herb St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) has been used for centuries in many folk and herbal remedies. Today in Europe, it is used extensively to treat mild to moderate depression. However, recent studies have found that St. John’s wort is no more effective than placebo in treating major or minor depression.

In 2000, the FDA issued a Public Health Advisory letter stating that the herb may interfere with certain medications used to treat heart disease, depression, seizures, certain cancers, and those used to prevent organ transplant rejection. The herb also may interfere with the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. Consult with your doctor before taking any herbal supplement.

Psychotherapy

Now I’m seeing the specialist on a regular basis for “talk therapy,” which helps me learn ways to deal with this illness in my everyday life, and I’m taking medicine for depression.

Several types of psychotherapy—or “talk therapy”—can help people with depression.

Two main types of psychotherapies—cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT)—are effective in treating depression. CBT helps people with depression restructure negative thought patterns. Doing so helps people interpret their environment and interactions with others in a positive and realistic way. It may also help you recognize things that may be contributing to the depression and help you change behaviors that may be making the depression worse. IPT helps people understand and work through troubled relationships that may cause their depression or make it worse.

For mild to moderate depression, psychotherapy may be the best option. However, for severe depression or for certain people, psychotherapy may not be enough. For example, for teens, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be the most effective approach to treating major depression and reducing the chances of it coming back. Another study looking at depression treatment among older adults found that people who responded to initial treatment of medication and IPT were less likely to have recurring depression if they continued their combination treatment for at least 2 years.

More information on psychotherapy is available on the NIMH website.

Electroconvulsive therapy and other brain stimulation therapies

For cases in which medication and/or psychotherapy does not help relieve a person’s treatment-resistant depression, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be useful. ECT, formerly known as “shock therapy,” once had a bad reputation. But in recent years, it has greatly improved and can provide relief for people with severe depression who have not been able to feel better with other treatments.

Before ECT begins, a patient is put under brief anesthesia and given a muscle relaxant. He or she sleeps through the treatment and does not consciously feel the electrical impulses. Within 1 hour after the treatment session, which takes only a few minutes, the patient is awake and alert.

A person typically will undergo ECT several times a week, and often will need to take an antidepressant or other medication along with the ECT treatments. Although some people will need only a few courses of ECT, others may need maintenance ECT—usually once a week at first, then gradually decreasing to monthly treatments. Ongoing NIMH-supported ECT research is aimed at developing personalized maintenance ECT schedules.

ECT may cause some side effects, including confusion, disorientation, and memory loss. Usually these side effects are short-term, but sometimes they can linger. Newer methods of administering the treatment have reduced the memory loss and other cognitive difficulties associated with ECT. Research has found that after 1 year of ECT treatments, most patients showed no adverse cognitive effects.

Other more recently introduced types of brain stimulation therapies used to treat severe depression include vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). These methods are not yet commonly used, but research has suggested that they show promise.

More information on ECT, VNS, rTMS and other brain stimulation therapies is available on the NIMH website.

Living With

How do women experience depression?

Depression is more common among women than among men. Biological, life cycle, hormonal, and psychosocial factors that women experience may be linked to women’s higher depression rate. Researchers have shown that hormones directly affect the brain chemistry that controls emotions and mood. For example, women are especially vulnerable to developing postpartum depression after giving birth, when hormonal and physical changes and the new responsibility of caring for a newborn can be overwhelming.

Some women may also have a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) called premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). PMDD is associated with the hormonal changes that typically occur around ovulation and before menstruation begins.

During the transition into menopause, some women experience an increased risk for depression. In addition, osteoporosis—bone thinning or loss—may be associated with depression. Scientists are exploring all of these potential connections and how the cyclical rise and fall of estrogen and other hormones may affect a woman’s brain chemistry.

Finally, many women face the additional stresses of work and home responsibilities, caring for children and aging parents, abuse, poverty, and relationship strains. It is still unclear, though, why some women faced with enormous challenges develop depression, while others with similar challenges do not.

How do men experience depression?

Men often experience depression differently than women. While women with depression are more likely to have feelings of sadness, worthlessness, and excessive guilt, men are more likely to be very tired, irritable, lose interest in once-pleasurable activities, and have difficulty sleeping.

Men may be more likely than women to turn to alcohol or drugs when they are depressed. They also may become frustrated, discouraged, irritable, angry, and sometimes abusive. Some men throw themselves into their work to avoid talking about their depression with family or friends, or behave recklessly. And although more women attempt suicide, many more men die by suicide in the United States.

How do older adults experience depression?

Depression is not a normal part of aging. Studies show that most seniors feel satisfied with their lives, despite having more illnesses or physical problems. However, when older adults do have depression, it may be overlooked because seniors may show different, less obvious symptoms. They may be less likely to experience or admit to feelings of sadness or grief.

Sometimes it can be difficult to distinguish grief from major depression. Grief after loss of a loved one is a normal reaction to the loss and generally does not require professional mental health treatment. However, grief that is complicated and lasts for a very long time following a loss may require treatment. Researchers continue to study the relationship between complicated grief and major depression.

Older adults also may have more medical conditions such as heart disease, stroke, or cancer, which may cause depressive symptoms. Or they may be taking medications with side effects that contribute to depression. Some older adults may experience what doctors call vascular depression, also called arteriosclerotic depression or subcortical ischemic depression. Vascular depression may result when blood vessels become less flexible and harden over time, becoming constricted. Such hardening of vessels prevents normal blood flow to the body’s organs, including the brain. Those with vascular depression may have, or be at risk for, co-existing heart disease or stroke.

Although many people assume that the highest rates of suicide are among young people, older white males age 85 and older actually have the highest suicide rate in the United States. Many have a depressive illness that their doctors are not aware of, even though many of these suicide victims visit their doctors within 1 month of their deaths.

Most older adults with depression improve when they receive treatment with an antidepressant, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. Research has shown that medication alone and combination treatment are both effective in reducing depression in older adults. Psychotherapy alone also can be effective in helping older adults stay free of depression, especially among those with minor depression. Psychotherapy is particularly useful for those who are unable or unwilling to take antidepressant medication.

How do children and teens experience depression?

Children who develop depression often continue to have episodes as they enter adulthood. Children who have depression also are more likely to have other more severe illnesses in adulthood.

A child with depression may pretend to be sick, refuse to go to school, cling to a parent, or worry that a parent may die. Older children may sulk, get into trouble at school, be negative and irritable, and feel misunderstood. Because these signs may be viewed as normal mood swings typical of children as they move through developmental stages, it may be difficult to accurately diagnose a young person with depression.

Before puberty, boys and girls are equally likely to develop depression. By age 15, however, girls are twice as likely as boys to have had a major depressive episode.

Depression during the teen years comes at a time of great personal change—when boys and girls are forming an identity apart from their parents, grappling with gender issues and emerging sexuality, and making independent decisions for the first time in their lives. Depression in adolescence frequently co-occurs with other disorders such as anxiety, eating disorders, or substance abuse. It can also lead to increased risk for suicide.

An NIMH-funded clinical trial of 439 adolescents with major depression found that a combination of medication and psychotherapy was the most effective treatment option. Other NIMH-funded researchers are developing and testing ways to prevent suicide in children and adolescents.

Childhood depression often persists, recurs, and continues into adulthood, especially if left untreated.

How can I help a loved one who is depressed?

If you know someone who is depressed, it affects you too. The most important thing you can do is help your friend or relative get a diagnosis and treatment. You may need to make an appointment and go with him or her to see the doctor. Encourage your loved one to stay in treatment, or to seek different treatment if no improvement occurs after 6 to 8 weeks.

To help your friend or relative

  • Offer emotional support, understanding, patience, and encouragement.
  • Talk to him or her, and listen carefully.
  • Never dismiss feelings, but point out realities and offer hope.
  • Never ignore comments about suicide, and report them to your loved one’s therapist or doctor.
  • Invite your loved one out for walks, outings and other activities. Keep trying if he or she declines, but don’t push him or her to take on too much too soon.
  • Provide assistance in getting to the doctor’s appointments.
  • Remind your loved one that with time and treatment, the depression will lift.

How can I help myself if I am depressed?

If you have depression, you may feel exhausted, helpless, and hopeless. It may be extremely difficult to take any action to help yourself. But as you begin to recognize your depression and begin treatment, you will start to feel better.

To Help Yourself

  • Do not wait too long to get evaluated or treated. There is research showing the longer one waits, the greater the impairment can be down the road. Try to see a professional as soon as possible.
  • Try to be active and exercise. Go to a movie, a ballgame, or another event or activity that you once enjoyed.
  • Set realistic goals for yourself.
  • Break up large tasks into small ones, set some priorities and do what you can as you can.
  • Try to spend time with other people and confide in a trusted friend or relative. Try not to isolate yourself, and let others help you.
  • Expect your mood to improve gradually, not immediately. Do not expect to suddenly “snap out of” your depression. Often during treatment for depression, sleep and appetite will begin to improve before your depressed mood lifts.
  • Postpone important decisions, such as getting married or divorced or changing jobs, until you feel better. Discuss decisions with others who know you well and have a more objective view of your situation.
  • Remember that positive thinking will replace negative thoughts as your depression responds to treatment.
  • Continue to educate yourself about depression.
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Maret 19, 2015

lapang DADA : SEMUA MEDIA AMRIK mohon THE FED TUNDA kenaekan k 2016

Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY — bumi2009fans @ 12:50 am

THE FED MENDENGARKAN PASAR
setidaknya BELUM AKAN TERJADI 2015
tunda lebe baek
New York Times : banyak anggota FOMC minta penundaan s/d 2016
USA: undershoot economy
1937 versus March 1938: pasca KENAEKAN SUKU BUNGA THE FED, bursa saham amrik AMBLE$$
boston globe: INFLASI WAJIB 2% P.A. dulu
Yellen on economy
alasan sederhana: ekspor amrik sekira 30% GDP (mirip kita) itu butuh HARGA PRODUK yang STABIL … jika harga TERLALU NAEK DI SELURUH DUNIA, maka produk amrik GA LAKU juga … tekanan pertumbuhan ekonomi amrik akan terganggu … sementara setidaknya ada 20 negara emerging market yang MENURUNKAN SUKU BUNGA guna MENINGKATKAN PERTUMBUHAN EKONOMI MEREKA

Maret 11, 2015

diam2suka: BADA1 ituuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (11 Maret 2015)

Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY — bumi2009fans @ 1:38 am

neh peringatan dini BMKG:

 

Peringatan dini hujan lebat disertai petir di DKI Jakarta

Rabu, 11 Maret 2015 09:35 WIB | 294 Views
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Jakarta (ANTARA News) – Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG) memperingatkan potensi terjadinya hujan lebat disertai petir di beberapa wilayah di DKI Jakarta dan sekitarnya.

Hujan dengan intensitas sedang hingga lebat disertai kilat dan petir terjadi pada pukul 09.00 WIB di wilayah: Tangerang, Kalideres, Cipondoh, Serpong, Pamulang, Bintaro, Pondok Cabe, dan Ciputat.

Selain itu, cuaca serupa juga diperkirakan terjadi di Cilandak, Pasar Minggu, Jagakarsa, Pasar Rebo, Lebak Bulus, Ciracas, Depok, Pancoran, Bojonggede, Cibinong, Semplak, Cileungsi, Parung, Rumpin, dan Bogor. Diperkirakan, hujan lebat disertai petir masih akan berlangsung hingga pukul 13.00 WIB dan meluas ke wilayah Koja, Cilincing, Tarumajaya, Tanjung Priok, Sawah Besar, Grogol, Tambora, Gambir, Palmerah, Tanah Abang, Setiabudi, Tebet, Mampang, Pancoran, Kramat Jati, Ciracas, Halim, Cipayung, Sukmajaya, Gunung Putri, Cikeas, Ciawi, Cisarua dan sekitarnya.

Editor: Fitri Supratiwi

per 30 menit jelang bursa saham buka tgl 11SUPERSEmarET2015:

badai tropis 11032015awanJKT

per tgl 11 Maret 2015:

ada 3 badai tropis di LUAR perairan Indonesia n di selatan ekuator… biasanya jika ada 2 badai tropis di wilayah SELATAN EKUATOR, maka Jakarta terancam hujan non-stop yang bisa menimbulkan banjiiiiiiiiiir… tampaknya awan hujan memang ada di Jabodetabek tapi tidak lebat, walo di LUAR JABODETABEK ada ekspektasi hujan lebat, mungkin tidak berkepanjangan … well, ini cuma berdasarkan pantauan radar wunderground ya, liat aza, moga2 Jakarta ga banjir setelah serentetan kebakaran besar …

badai tropis 11032015 badai tropis 11032015lokalJKT badai tropis 11032015LUARjkt

 

per tgl 18 Februari 2015:

peta ujan jkt 180215 wu

awan tebal mengepung Jakarta (petunjuk berwarna merah)… well, moga2 ga berkepanjangan … selamat merayakan tahun baru Imlek 🙂

per tgl 17 Februari 2015:

peta ujan jkt 170215 badai peta ujan jkt 170215 awan peta ujan jkt 170215 wu

 

… ternyata ini PENGAKUAN BMKG:

KOMPAS.com — Intensitas hujan di wilayah Jabodetabek pada Senin (9/2/2015) luar biasa. Kepala Balitbang Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG) Edvin Aldrian mengatakan, hujan hari ini setara dengan rata-rata hujan dalam sebulan.

“Rata-rata hujan dalam sebulan itu 300-400 mm per hari. Hari ini kita ukur dari stasiun kita di kantor BMKG mencapai 360 mm per hari untuk wilayah Jakarta Pusat. Jadi, hujan untuk sebulan tumpah dalam sehari. Luar biasa,” kata Edvin.

Hujan mulai mengguyur Jakarta pada Senin dini hari. Sejak dini hari hingga tengah hari, intensitas hujan di wilayah Jakarta Pusat mencapai 177 mm, sementara pada siang hari, total intensitas hujan mencapai 198 mm.

“Besok (Selasa, 10/2/2015) kemungkinan hujan sudah mereda, tetapi masih akan tetap basah,” ungkap Edvin saat dihubungiKompas.com. Warga Jabodetabek masih harus mewaspadai hujan dan banjir.

Peneliti meteorologi tropis Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT), Tri Handoko Seto, menduga hujan Jakarta hari ini disebabkan oleh seruak dingin dari Siberia, aliran udara dingin dari utara Bumi.

Namun, Edvin meyakini bahwa penyebabnya bukan seruak dingin, melainkan awan hujan yang terkonsentrasi di Jabodetabek. “Kalau seruak dingin wilayah Selat Karimata itu kering, ini tidak,” katanya.

… per tgl 8-9 Februari hujan terus menerus mengguyur Jakarta dsk, ada relasi dengan kehadiran 2 badai tropis ini kah :

… per jam 1530an, ujan semakin reda di Jakarta Barat, sesuai dengan pantauan satelit WUNDERGROUND neh :

badai tropis 09022015 cuaca jakartaREDA

… per jam 1211 SIANG, ujan REDA di JAKARTA BARAT, sesuai dengan PANTAUAN SATELIT wunderground seh … 🙂 (moga2 semakin reda, sehingga ancaman banjir lebe dahsyat bisa SIRNA)

(tampak dari pantauan satelit AWAN TEBAL terutama berkonsentrasi di UTARA JAWA BARAT… sementara di JAKARTA BARAT, awan mendung TETAP ADA tapi tidak setebal yang di BEKASI/per jam 11.18 PAGI 090215.. sementara ANGIN BERTIUP dari BARAT (Banten) ke TIMUR (Jawa Barat bagian utara))

 

badai tropis 09022015 cuaca jakarta

badai tropis 09022015

… per JAM 1132 PAGI, kondisi awan mulai semakin bergeser ke TIMUR :
badai tropis 09022015 cuaca jakartaAWAN BERGESER
… per jam 1139 PAGI, kondisi AWAN di INDONESIA BAGIAN JAWA BARAT sbb:
badai tropis 09022015 cuaca jakartaREGIONAL

05 – 11 Februari 2015

Hasil Pantauan sebagai Dasar Pertimbangan

Terdapat Pusat Tekanan Rendah di Samudera Hindia Barat Daya Sumatera, membentuk belokan angin di Sumatera bagian selatan, Kalimantan Barat. Terbentuk Daerah Pertemuan Angin memanjang dari Jawa Tengah hingga Perairan Yos Sudarso . Suhu Muka Laut di wilayah perairan Indonesia umumnya berkisar antara 27.0 – 30.0 oC, Anomali Suhu Muka Laut positif (+0.5 – 1 0C) berada di wilayah Samudera Hindia barat Sumatera, Selat Malaka, Laut Jawa, Samudera Hindia Selatan Jawa, Perairan Utara Bali, Laut Timor, Selat Makassar, Laut Sulawesi, Perairan Utara Papua.

Angin gradien di wilayah Indonesia umumnya bertiup dari arah Barat – Timur Laut. Kecepatan angin berkisar antara 05 – 55 km/jam dengan kecepatan angin tertinggi terjadi Laut China Selatan, Perairan Kep.Aru, Laut Arafuru bagian Timur, Perairan Yos Sudarso, Perairan Merauke.

Hujan dengan intensitas sedang – lebat berpotensi terjadi di Sumatera bagian selatan, Bangka Belitung, Serang, Jakarta, Jawa bagian Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan bagian selatan, Tengah, Sulawesi bagian Selatan, tenggara, dan Gorontalo, Maluku, Papua bagian Barat dan Utara.

Wilayah Jabodetabek

05 – 07 Februari 2015

08 – 11 Februari 2015

Jakarta Umumnya berawan hingga hujan ringan, berpotensi hujan ringan – sedang di Jakarta Selatan, dan Barat berpotensi hujan sedang – lebat di Jakarta Utara, Jakarta Pusat dan Jakarta Timur pada siang/ sore dan malam hari. Umumnya berawan hingga hujan ringan, berpotensi hujan ringan – sedang di Jakarta Selatan, Barat berpotensi hujan sedang – lebat di Jakarta Utara, Jakarta Pusat pada siang/ sore dan malam hari.
Bogor Umumnya berawan hingga hujan ringan berpotensi hujan ringan – sedang pada siang/sore dan malam hari. Umumnya berawan hingga hujan ringan berpotensi hujan ringan – sedang pada siang/sore dan malam hari.
Tangerang Umumnya berawan hingga hujan ringan berpotensi hujan sedang – lebat pada siang/sore dan malam hari. Umumnya berawan hingga hujan ringan berpotensi hujan sedang – lebat pada siang/sore dan malam hari.
Bekasi Umumnya berawan hingga hujan ringan berpotensi hujan sedang – lebat pada siang/sore dan malam hari. Umumnya berawan hingga hujan ringan berpotensi hujan sedang – lebat pada siang/sore dan malam hari.
Depok Umumnya berawan hingga hujan ringan berpotensi hujan sedang – lebat pada siang/sore dan malam hari. Umumnya berawan hingga hujan ringan berpotensi hujan sedang – lebat pada siang/sore dan malam hari.

05 – 07 Februari 2015

08 – 11 Februari 2015

Sumatera Umumnya berawan hingga hujan ringan, berpotensi hujan ringan – sedang di NAD, Sumatera utara, Sumatera Barat, Riau, dan Kep. Riau dan berpotensi hujan sedang – lebat di Bengkulu, Jambi, Sumatera Selatan, Lampung dan Bangka Belitung. Umumnya berawan hingga hujan ringan, potensi hujan sedang – lebat di wilayah Riau, Bengkulu, Jambi, Sumatera Selatan, Lampung dan Bangka Belitung.
Kalimantan Umumnya Berawan hingga hujan ringan berpotensi hujan Sedang – Lebat di wilayah Kalimantan Tengah, Barat dan Kalimantan Selatan. Umumnya Berawan hingga hujan ringan berpotensi hujan Sedang – Lebat di wilayah Kalimantan Tengah, Barat dan Kalimantan Selatan.
Sulawesi Umumnya berawan hingga hujan ringan, potensi hujan sedang – lebat di wilayah Sulawesi Tenggara dan Selatan. Umumnya berawan hingga hujan ringan, potensi hujan sedang – lebat di wilayah Sulawesi Tenggara dan Selatan.
Maluku Umumnya berawan, berpotensi hujan ringan – sedang di wilayah Maluku Utara berpotensi hujan sedang – lebat di wilayah Maluku. Umumnya berawan, berpotensi hujan ringan – sedang di wilayah Maluku Utara berpotensi hujan sedang – lebat di wilayah Maluku.
Papua Umumnya berawan hingga hujan ringan, potensi hujan sedang – lebat di wilayah Papua Barat dan Papua bagian Utara. Umumnya berawan dan hujan ringan, potensi hujan sedang – lebat di wilayah Papua Barat dan Papua bagian Utara.
Jawa Umumnya berawan hingga hujan ringan berpotensi hujan sedang – lebat di wilayah Serang, Jakarta, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah bagian Utara dan Jawa Timur. Umumnya berawan hingga hujan ringan berpotensi hujan sedang – lebat di wilayah Serang, Jakarta, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah bagian Utara dan Jawa Timur.
Bali, NTT dan NTB Umumnya berawan berpotensi hujan ringan – sedang di Bali, berpotensi hujan sedang – lebat di NTB dan NTT. Umumnya berawan berpotensi hujan ringan – sedang di Bali, berpotensi hujan sedang – lebat di NTB dan NTT.

Peringatan Dini

6 – 7 Februari 2015 : Jawa Tengah bagian Utara, Kalimantan Tengah bagian Utara, Kalimantan Timur, Kalimantan Utara, Sulawesi Tengah bagian Selatan, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tenggara dan Papua bagian Tengah. 8 – 9 Februari 2015 : Pesisir Barat Sumatera, Riau, Lampung, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Tengah, Jawa Tengah bagian Utara, Jawa Timur, Sulawesi Tengah bagian Selatan, Sulawesi Selatan bagain Utara, Sulawesi Tenggara. 10 –12 Februari 2015 : Sumatera Barat, Bengkulu, Jawa Barat bagian Utara, Jawa Tengah, Kalimantan Tengah bagian Utara, Kalimantan Utara, Kalimantan Timur, Papua Barat dan Papua bagian Tengah.

Catatan dan Keterangan

Hujan ringan dengan intensitas         : 0,1 – 5,0 mm/jam atau 5 – 20 mm/hari
Hujan sedang dengan intensitas        : 5,0 – 10,0 mm/jam atau 20 – 50 mm/hari
Hujan lebat dengan intensitas            : 10,0 – 20 mm/jam atau 50 – 100 mm/hari
Hujan sangat lebat dengan intensitas : >20 mm/jam atau >100 mm/hari

Untuk keperluan ‘perencanaan’ dalam kegiatan operasional, agar kembali menghubungi BMKG (Unit kerja: Pusat Meteorologi Publik – Informasi Meteorologi Publik sebagai antisipasi perubahan/updating dari prakiraan mingguan

 

… per tgl 01 Februari 2015, ada 2 badai tropis di selatan ekuator, sementara ujan terus menerus mengguyur Jabodetabek, n sudah ada prediksi banjir merata di Jakarta:

badai tropis 01022015

badai tropical cyclon 281214 airasia8501badai tropical cyclon 281214 airasia8501lokalcuaca sekitar Indonesia memang DIKEPUNG BADAI TROPIS (di utara: TC Jangmi;  di selatan: TC KATE …  pagi 291214: cuaca sekitar area pencarian 8501 agak buruk karena banyak potensi hujan dan awan tebal

TEMPO.CO, Jakarta – Menteri Perhubungan Ignasius Jonan akhirnya membalas surat terbuka yang disiarkan oleh Fadjar Nugroho, yang mengklaim sebagai pilot Qatar Airways, maskapai penerbangan asal Qatar. Fadjar mengirimkan surat terbuka kepada Menteri Jonan melalui situs Ilmuterbang.com, Jumat, 2 Januari 2015. Fadjar sudah sebulan menjadi administrator di laman tersebut. (Baca: Geger, Menteri Jonan Damprat Direktur Air Asia)

Dalam penjelasan yang disampaikan lewat staf khususnya, Hadi M. Djuraid, Jonan tidak mempermasalahkan laporan cuaca diambil secara fisik atau melalui situs. Yang dia tekankan adalah pentingnya pilot mendapat briefing langsung dari Flight Operation Officer (FOO). Briefing langsung harus dilakukan agar ada diskusi antara FOO dan pilot terkait penerbangan dan cuaca saat itu. (Baca: BMKG: Air Asia Terbang tanpa Bawa Laporan Cuaca)

Jika dari laporan cuaca terdapat situasi tertentu yang harus dicermati, menurut Jonan seperti yang ditirukan Hadi, FOO bisa memberi saran tentang rute atau ketinggian yang harus dilewati oleh para pilot ssebelum terbang. “Ada partner diskusi yang memungkinkan Pilot mendapatkan informasi lebih untuh sebagai bahan mengambil keputusan,” ucap Hadi. (Baca: Air Asia Berani Tambah Jadwal Tanpa Izin, Kenapa?)

Dalam “surat cinta”-nya kepada Jonan, Fadjar menegaskan, tak ada peraturan yang mengharuskan maskapai atau FOO mengambil data cuaca secara fisik.”BMKG telah menyediakan laporan cuaca ini secara online dalam websitenya. Dalam Peraturan Keselamatan Penerbangan Sipil (PKPS), tak ditulis bahwa laporannya harus berbentuk kertas,” ujar Fadjar dalam situs tersebut. (Baca: Rute Air Asia Surabaya ke Singapura Dibekukan)

Fadjar menambahkan, sejak BMKG menyediakan data cuaca penerbangan secara online, rekan-rekannya tak perlu lagi datang ke briefing office. Dengan tidak perlu data ke briefing office, kata Fadjar, FOO bisa lebih berkonsentrasi dalam melepaskan sebuah penerbangan tanpa terburu-buru. “Briefing yang artinya berdiskusi antara FOO dan penerbang untuk menentukan bahan bakar dan urusan penerbangan lainnya,” ujar Fadjar. (Baca juga: Jonan Damprat AirAsia, Pilot Tulis ‘Surat Cinta’)

ISTMAN M.P. | ANANDA TERESIA | BC

 

TRIBUNNEWS.COM, JAKARTA – Aksi marah-marah Menteri Perhubungan Ignasius Jonan di kantor maskapai IndonesiaAirAsia ternyata mendapat tanggapan dari salah satu blogger yang juga berprofesi sebagai penerbang bernama Fadjar Nugraha.

Sebelum kita menyimak apa yang dikatakan Fadjar, terlebih dahulu pembaca harus mengetahui alasan Menhub mencak-mencak di kantor AirAsia. Menurut Staf Khusus Menhub Hadi M Djuraid yang ikut dalam sidak tersebut, Jonan sempat marah besar lantaran salah satu Direktur AirAsia menganggap briefing pilot sebelum penerbangan sebagai cara tradisional alias kuno.

“Itu yang sudah berlaku secara internasional, mengambil info cuaca secara fisik dari BMKG itu cara tradisional,” kata Hadi sembari menirukan kata-kata salah satu Direktur AirAsia, Jakarta, Jumat (2/1/2014).

Dalam tulisannya, Fadjar mengungkapkan secara terbuka “uneg-uneg” dan fakta hukum terkait keharusan tatap muka dan briefing pilot sebelum terbang. Dalam artikel yang berjudul “Surat terbuka pada Bapak Menteri Jonan”, ini yang dikatakan Fadjar:

“Bapak Menteri yang terhormat, perkenalkan nama saya Fadjar Nugroho. Pekerjaan saya penerbang. Mungkin di mata orang lain ini adalah sebuah pekerjaan hanya sebagai sopir. Tapi saya bangga karena katanya pekerjaan saya membutuhkan kemampuan otak dan fisik yang tinggi.”

“Saya baru saja membaca berita bahwa bapak datang keAirAsia dan marah besar kepada manajemen perusahaan tersebut karena laporan cuaca yang tidak diambil di briefing office tapi malah mengambil dari internet. Sama dengan penerbang AirAsia dan maskapai lainnya, pada waktu saya terbang di Indonesia menggunakan pesawat beregistrasi Indonesia, saya harus mengambil laporan cuaca dari BMKG.”

“Kenapa BMKG? Karena sudah bertahun-tahun tertulis bahwa sebuah penerbangan komersial berbasis PKPS (Peraturan Keselamatan Penerbangan Sipil) nomor 121 ayat 101 memberikan petunjuk seperti di bawah ini:

121.101 Fasilitas Laporan Cuaca
(a) Tidak ada maskapai apapun yang boleh menggunakan laporan cuaca untuk mengendalikan sebuah penerbangan kecuali laporan tersebut disiapkan dan dikeluarkan oleh BMKG atau sumber yang disetujui oleh Direktorat Perhubungan Udara.

“Jadi untuk mendapatkan laporan cuaca ini kami pergi ke briefing office yang menyediakan laporan ini berupa hasil print out atau fotokopi. Alhamdulillah, sekarang dengan teknologi internet, terima kasih bahwa BMKG telah menyediakan laporan ini secara online dalam website yang alamat selengkapnya adalah:

http://aviation.bmkg.go.id/web/metar_speci.php

Untuk membaca lebih lanjut surat terbuka Fadjar Nugraha dengan judul “Surat terbuka pada Bapak Menteri Jonan“, pembaca bisa langsung klik tautan berikut ini:

http://ilmuterbang.com/blog-mainmenu-9-60730/blogberita-pilot/789-surat-terbuka-pada-bapak-menteri-jonan

Liputan6.com, Jakarta – Di tengah masih berlangsungnya pencarian korban pesawat AirAsia QZ8501, beredar surat dari Kepala Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG) Andi E Sakya kepada Menteri Perhubungan Ignasius Jonan yang bersifat penting dan terbatas.

Seperti ditayangkan Liputan 6 Petang SCTV, Kamis (1/1/2015), dalam surat disebutkan, berdasarkan log book di BMKG Juanda, Surabaya, pihak AirAsia baru mengambil bahan informasi cuaca pada pukul 07.00 WIB atau sesudah pesawat AirAsia QZ8501 hilang kontak bukan sebelum take off.

Sesuai ketentuan, setiap maskapai harus mengambil bahan informasi cuaca ke BMKG sebelum melakukan penerbangan. Sebab dalam flight document tertuang informasi cuaca sepanjang rute penerbangan, situasi bandara tujuan, hingga kondisi cuaca di bandara alternatif jika penerbangan tersebut terpaksa dialihkan.

Informasi cuaca itulah yang kemudian menjadi bahan briefing pihak maskapai dengan kru pesawat sebelum melakukan penerbangan. BMKG mengakui tidak semua maskapai rajin mengambil flight document sebelum melakukan penerbangan. Kendati demikian, bahan informasi cuaca bisa juga diperoleh melalui jalur online.

Sementara saat ini Kementerian Perhubungan tengah menyelidiki mengapa pihak maskapai AirAsia terlambat mengambil bahan informasi cuaca. (Nfs/Yus)

 

Bisnis.com, JAKARTA – Setelah 3 hari pencarian, Pesawat AirAsia QZ 8501, yang dinyatakan hilang kontak seusai tinggal landas dari bandara Internsional Juanda Surabaya menuju ke Singapura pada Minggu (28/12/2014), akhirnya ditemukan jatuh di peraiaran Pangkalan Bun, Kalimantan Tengah.

Pesawat yang berpenumpang 155 orang itu take off dari landas pacu 10 Juanda International Airport (SUB) pukul 05:35 waktu setempat (22:35 UTC).

Prof. Edvin Aldrian, Ferdika Amsal, Jose Rizal, Kadarsah, dalam publikasi berjudulKecelakaan AirAsia QZ 8501; Analisis Meteorologis, mengungkapkan berdasarkan data yang tersedia di lokasi terakhir pesawat yang diterima cuaca adalah faktor pemicu terjadinya kecelakaan tersebut.

“Fenomena cuaca yang paling memungkinkan adalah terjadinya icing yang dapat menyebabkan mesin pesawat mengalami kerusakan karena pendinginan,” katanya.

Saat kejadian, citra satelit Infra Red (IR) mengungkapkan bahwa suhu puncak awan mencapai -80º s/d -85ºC (warna violet), yang berarti terdapat butiran-butiran es didalam awan tersebut (icing).

Hal ini, katanya, hanyalah salah satu analisis kemungkinan yang terjadi berdasarkan data meteorologis yang ada, dan bukan merupakan keputusan akhir tentang penyebab terjadinya insiden tersebut.

 

Bisnis.com, JAKARTA – Setelah 3 hari pencarian, Pesawat AirAsia QZ 8501, yang dinyatakan hilang kontak seusai tinggal landas dari bandara Internsional Juanda Surabaya menuju ke Singapura pada Minggu (28/12/2014), akhirnya ditemukan jatuh di peraiaran Pangkalan Bun, Kalimantan Tengah.

Pesawat yang berpenumpang 155 orang itu take off dari landas pacu 10 Juanda International Airport (SUB) pukul 05:35 waktu setempat (22:35 UTC).

Prof. Edvin Aldrian, Ferdika Amsal, Jose Rizal, Kadarsah, dalam Kecelakaan AirAsia QZ 8501; Analisis Meteorologis, mengungkapkan secara umum kondisi cuaca pada bandara asal dan bandara tujuan menunjukkan kondisi cuaca yang tidak signifikan, sangat memungkinkan untuk take off dan landing pesawat.

“Namun dapat kita lihat bahwa kondisi cuaca yang diberikan dalam dokumen penerbangan yang diberikan oleh kantor BMKG menunjukkan bahwa pada rute yang akan  dilewati selama pesawat cruising level terdapat kondisi yang cukup mengkhawatirkan,” katanya.

Hal tersebut dapat dilihat dari data SIGWx dan citra satelit yang diberikan pada saat pilot melakukan briefing sebelum terbang, seperti ditunjukkan gambar data-data berikut ini.

  • ISOL (Isolated) : menunjukkan area cumulonimbus sel tunggal dan / atau badai dengan cakupan spasial maksimum kurang dari 50 persen dari daerah yang terkena, atau diperkirakan akan terpengaruh.
  • EMBD (Embedded) : menunjukkan bahwa badai (termasuk awan cumulonimbus yang tidak disertai dengan badai) terdapat dalam lapisan awan lain dan tidak dapat dikenali dengan mudah.
  • CB 480/XXX : Jenis awan Cumulonimbus dengan tinggi puncak awan 48.000 feet dan tinggi dasar tidak dapat diperkirakan.

 

  • Wind Temp Chart Flight Level 5.000 Feet

Arah angin : Barat Daya–Barat Laut.

Kecepatan angin : 10–25 Knot

Temperatur Rata-rata : 18 oC

 

  • Wind Temp Chart Flight Level 10.000 Feet

Arah angin : Barat Daya–Barat Laut.

Kecepatan angin: 5–25 Knot

Temperatur Rata-rata : 8–10 oC

  • Wind Temp Chart Flight Level 18.000Feet

Arah angin : Barat Daya–Timur Laut.

Kecepatan angin : 5–15 Knot

Temperatur Rata-rata :-5–-6 oC

  • Wind Temp ChartFlight Level 24.000 Feet

Arah angin : Timur Laut–Selatan.

Kecepatan angin : 5–20 Knot

Temperatur Rata-rata :-14–-15 oC

  • Wind Temp Chart Flight Level 30.000 Feet

Arah angin : Timur Laut–Tenggara.

Kecepatan angin : 10–30 Knot

Temperatur Rata-rata :-29–-30 oC

  • Wind Temp ChartFlight Level 34.000 Feet

Arah angin : Timur–Tenggara.

Kecepatan angin : 15–35 Knot

Temperatur Rata-rata :-39–-40 oC

 

  • Wind Temp Chart Flight Level 39.000 Feet

Arah angin : Timur Laut–Tenggara.

Kecepatan angin : 15–20 Knot

Temperatur Rata-rata :-52–-53 oC

 

  • Wind Temp Chart Flight Level 45.000 Feet

Arah angin : Timur Laut–Tenggara.

Kecepatan angin : 20–30 Knot

Temperatur Rata-rata :-68–-69 oC

 

  • Wind Temp Chart Flight Level 63.000 Feet

Arah angin : Tenggara–Barat.

Kecepatan angin : 10–25 Knot

Temperatur Rata-rata :-72–-75 oC

 

Dahlan Dahi*

KOMPAS.com — Pesawat AirAsia bernomor QZ8501 dinyatakan hilang pada Minggu (28/12/2014). Dua hari kemudian, temuan jenazah dan serpihan memberi jawaban dari pencarian yang dipimpin Badan SAR Nasional terhadap pesawat ini. Walau demikian, tragedi tersebut menyisakan beberapa pertanyaan.  

Pertanyaan pertama, apakah penyebab kecelakaan yang menewaskan semua penumpang dan kru yang terdiri dari 162 orang di low cost carrier itu karenafaktor cuaca atau faktor manusia (human error)?

Bahwa cuaca buruk di lintasan yang dilalui dari Surabaya menuju Singapura, hal itu rasanya tidak terbantahkan lagi.

Ada juga satu fakta, pilot AirAsia minta izin naik ke ketinggian untuk menghindari cuaca buruk. Izin tidak diberikan menara pengawas. Setelah itu, Airbus 320 itu hilang kontak.

Koran The Straits Times Singapura pada Rabu (31/12/2014) ini menampilkan grafis yang memperlihatkan posisi pesawat di jalur itu, sesaat sebelum kecelakaan terjadi.

AirAsia 8501 terbang di ketinggian 32.000 kaki, dan berada pada posisi paling rendah. Di atas AirAsia 8501 terdapat tujuh pesawat lain (lihat grafis).

 

Courtesy The Straits Time


Masuk akal kalau menara pengawas (ATC) tidak memberi izin ke pilot AirAsia 8501 untuk menambah ketinggian. Itulah titik awal penyelidikan.

Namun, dua pertanyaan lain menyusul. Pertama, mengapa AirAsia 8501 tetap diizinkan terbang padahal jalur penerbangan pada jam itu demikian padatnya? Cuaca juga merah di beberapa spot.

Kedua, mengapa (atau apakah boleh dibenarkan jika) AirAsia memajukan jadwal penerbangan dari semula pukul 08.00 pagi ke pukul 05.30 pagi?

Stasiun televisi CNN menyoroti pertanyaan kedua. Memajukan jadwal penerbangan ke jam yang sibuk dan pada saat cuaca buruk dianggap sebagai keputusan yang salah.

Masalahnya, seperti terlihat pada grafis, dalam kondisi cuaca buruk, pilot membutuhkan ruang manuver yang lebih besar dan lebih tinggi.

Hal itulah yang tidak diperoleh pilot berpengalaman dari AirAsia QZ8501. Cuaca buruk, pilot tidak memiliki ruang untuk menaikkan pesawat, dan jadwal dimajukan ke jam sibuk.

Beberapa hari ke depan, publik menunggu penjelasan yang lebih komprehensif mengenai apa yang terjadi.

Kecelakaan AirAsia bukan cuma soal AirAsia dan korban beserta keluarga.

Ini soal yang lebih besar: Apakah kita bisa menggantungkan nasib kita, nasib keluarga kita, pada pengelola industri penerbangan?

Apakah maskapai dengan penerbangan murah benar-benar memberi harga murah atau nyawa manusia yang dinilai murah?

Inilah inti soalnya: Seberapa kuat otoritas penerbangan dan pengelola low cost carrier berpihak pada nasib manusia? (Dahlan Dahi dari Singapura)

*Pemimpin Redaksi Tribunnews.com

TEMPO.CO , Jakarta: Pengamat penerbangan, Ruth Hana Simatupang, mengatakan bandara di Indonesia tidak ada yang dilengkapi dengan radar cuaca. Selama ini, Air Traffic Controller hanya mendapatkan infromasi cuaca dari Badan Meterologi dan Geofisika yang di-update berkala setiap sepuluh menit.

Padahal, kata Ruth, informasi cuaca perlu dimilik ATC secara real time, tidak bisa hanya mengandalkan data BMKG. “Jadi ketika pilot minta izin berbelok karena dihadang awan tebal, persepsi petugas (akan) sama dengan pilot,” kata Ruth saat dihubungi, Selasa, 30 Desember 2014.

Ruth menambahkan,“Apa salahnya meng-upgrade alat navigasi bandara kita dan dilengkapi dengan radar itu.” Selama ini fokus upgrade bandara selalu di pelayanan konsumen. Bukannya tidak perlu, namun Ruth menginginkan keselamatan penerbangan harus menjadi fokus utama otoritas bandara. (Baca: Body Air Asia Tampak di Bawah Permukaan Laut)

Direktur Navigasi Penerbangan Kementerian Perhubungan, Nasir Usman, mengatakan bandara Indonesia belum perlu memiliki radar cuaca sendiri. “Punya BMKG sudah canggih dan datanya akurat,” kata Nasir.

Nasir juga mengatakan setiap pesawat saat ini memiliki radar cuaca sendiri dan bisa diatur oleh pilot untuk melihat kondisi cuaca atau awan hingga 100 mil ke depan. “Kalau pilot minta izin berbelok karena cuaca atau badai, ATC juga sudah diperingati oleh BMKG dengan kondisi itu,” kata Nasir. (Baca: Kronologi Penemuan Puing yang Diduga Air Asia)

Di luar negeri, kata Nasir, tidak semua bandara memiliki radar cuaca sendiri. “Alat itu tidak menjadi kebutuhan utama di bandara luar negeri. Hanya sebagai pelengkap,” kata Nasir.

“Kalaupun ingin dilengkapi, itu adalah wewenang AirNav Indonesia,” kata Nasir.

Sebelumnya, pada hari naas hilangnya AirAsia QZ 8501 pukul 06.12 WIB, pilot Irianto mengontak Air Traffic Controller Jakarta untuk minta izin belok ke kiri dan naik ke ketinggian 38 ribu kaki untuk menghindari awan comulonimbus di perairan Tanjung Pandan, Bangka Belitung.

ATC menjawab dan memerintahkan pilot tetap mempertahankan ketinggian tapi mengizinkan pesawat menyimpang sejauh 7 mil ke kiri. Namun pilot tidak menjawab ketika dipanggil delapan kali. Lima menit kemudian, 06.17 WIB, pesawat sudah hilang dari radar ATC, baik radar di Jakarta, Pangkalan Bun, Pontianak, dan Singapura.

INDRI MAULIDAR

 

 

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