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Agustus 17, 2014

ya sudah lah: aspirin DIU$UNk … 071210_170814

Filed under: Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 12:57 am

Jakarta (ANTARA News) – Dalam dosis harian ataupun dosis jangka panjang aspirin dapat mengurangi risiko kanker pada saluran pencernaan, menurut penelitian yang dipublikasikan pada hari Rabu (06/08/2014) seperti ditulis AFP.

Aspirin sangat mengurangi risiko pengembangan dan kematian akibat kanker usus, kanker perut, dan kanker esofagus, kata penulisnya.

Mereka menemukan bahwa mengonsumsi aspirin selama 10 tahun bisa mengurangi kasus kanker usus sekitar 35 persen dan kematian sebesar 40 persen.

Risiko kanker esofagus dan kanker lambung berkurang sebesar 30 persen. Sedangkan resiko kematian akibat kanker ini berkurang sebesar 35-50 persen.

Untuk mendapatkan manfaat ini orang harus mulai mengonsumsi dosis harian 75-100 mg selama setidaknya lima tahun dan mungkin 10 tahun antara usia 50 dan 65.

Tidak ada manfaat yang terlihat jika mengonsumsi aspirin selama tiga tahun pertama, dan angka kematian hanya berkurang setelah lima tahun.

Aspirin telah lama dianggap sebagai pahlawan dalam memerangi penyakit jantung dan juga telah diteliti untuk efek anti-kanker terkenal.

Ini merupakan bukti pertama bahwa aspirin dapat menjadi perisai bagi jenis kanker, kata para ilmuwan.

Penelitian, yang diterbitkan dalam jurnal Annals of Oncology kanker Eropa, dipimpin oleh Jack Cuzick, seorang profesor di pusat pencegahan kanker di Queen Mary University of London.

Hal tersebut terlihat pada lebih dari 200 uji klinis dan penelitian lain yang mengeksplorasi efek anti-kanker aspirin.

“Studi kami menunjukkan bahwa jika orang – orang berusia antara 50 – 65 tahun mulai mengonsumsi aspirin setiap hari selama paling tidak 10 tahun, akan ada pengurangan sembilan persen resiko kanker, stroke dan serangan jantung pada pria dan sekitar tujuh persen pada wanita,” kata Cuzick dalam siaran persnya seperti dikutip AFP.

“Angka kematian dengan penyebab apa pun juga akan lebih rendah, sekitar empat persen selama periode 20 tahun. Manfaat penggunaan aspirin akan sangat terlihat dalam penurunan kematian akibat kanker,” tambahnya.

Penelitian mengatakan ada kerugian untuk konsumsi dosis harian aspirin, potensi efek samping seperti tukak lambung dan pendarahan di saluran pencernaan. Pada orang tua, dalam jumlah yang sangat kecil, pendarahan bisa mengancam jiwa.

Ia mengatakan bahwa penelitian lebih lanjut diperlukan untuk melihat siapa yang akan mendapat manfaat paling banyak dari mengkonsumsi aspirin dan menentukan dosis yang tepat untuk memaksimalkan efek perlindungan.

“Telah lama diketahui bahwa aspirin, salah satu obat yang paling murah dan paling umum di pasar, dapat melindungi beberapa jenis kanker,” kata Cuzick.

“Namun hingga penelitian kami, di mana kami menganalisis semua bukti yang ada, tidak jelas apakah pro mengonsumsi aspirin melebihi kontra,” tambahnya.

Cuzick menambahkan: “Meskipun ada beberapa efek samping yang serius yang tidak dapat diabaikan, meminum aspirin setiap hari menjadi hal yang paling penting yang dapat kita lakukan untuk mengurangi resiko kanker setelah berhenti merokok dan mengurangi obesitas, dan mungkin lebih mudah untuk diterapkan.”

Penerjemah: Arindra Meodia

Editor: Suryanto

Taking aspirin every day can reduce the chance of developing or dying from bowel and stomach cancers, a review of all available evidence suggests.

And scientists predict if everyone aged 50 and above in the UK took the drug for 10 years, some 122,000 deaths could be prevented over two decades.

But they warn aspirin can cause internal bleeding and say medical advice must be sought before using it.

The Queen Mary University of London report is in the Annals of Oncology.

“Start Quote

Taking aspirin daily looks to be the most important thing we can do to reduce cancer after stopping smoking and reducing obesity”

Prof Jack Cuzik Queen Mary University of London

Weighing up benefits

Scientists examined some 200 studies investigating the benefits and harms of taking aspirin – an area of continuing medical debate.

They found the drug reduced the number of cases and deaths from bowel, stomach and oesophageal cancer by some 30-40%.

There was weaker and more variable evidence that the drug reduced deaths from breast, prostate and lung cancer too.

And the study found people needed to take the drug for at least five years to see any benefits.

Prof Jack Cuzick, at Queen Mary University of London, who led the research, urged all healthy people aged 50 and above to consider taking a small dose (75mg) of the drug every day for a decade.

Researchers predicted if 1,000 individuals aged 60 took the drug for 10 years, a further decade later there would be:

  • 16 fewer deaths from cancer
  • One fewer death from heart attack
  • Two extra deaths from bleeding

Prof Cuzick, who has been taking aspirin for four years, said: “Whilst there are some serious side-effects that can’t be ignored, taking aspirin daily looks to be the most important thing we can do to reduce cancer after stopping smoking and reducing obesity, and will probably be much easier to implement.”

Professor Jack Cuzick: ”The benefits substantially outweigh any side-effects”

Individual risks

They found benefits continued even when people stopped taking the drug, but say it is unclear exactly how long people should use it for.

As the risk of internal bleeding rises as an individual gets older, they suggest a cut-off point of 10 years.

There is still uncertainty whether other doses of the drug could offer more protection.

The benefits of aspirin must be weighed against individual risks, experts warn

Aspirin’s well known possible side-effects include bleeding in the stomach and the brain.

And while the study suggests 122,000 lives could be saved if everyone in the UK aged 50-64 took the drug, this is balanced against the estimated 18,000 deaths from side-effects.

Experts warn anyone at high risk of bleeding, including people with blood disorders who take blood thinning medication, or are frequent smokers or drinkers, are more likely to suffer these side-effects.

They recommend anyone considering daily medication should speak to their doctors to discuss individual risks.

Dr Julie Sharp, at Cancer Research UK, said: “Aspirin is showing promise in preventing certain types of cancer, but it’s vital that we balance this with the complications it can cause.

“Before aspirin can be recommended for cancer prevention, some important questions need to be answered and tests need to be developed to predict who is likely to have side-effects.”

Exactly how aspirin protects against cancer is unknown. Scientists suggest it may reduce inflammation or act on blood cells that would otherwise encourage the spread of the disease.

Aspirin Reduces Risk of Death From a Range of Cancers, Researchers Find
By Chris Kay – Dec 6, 2010

Aspirin, a century-old medicine known to relieve pain and prevent blood clots, also reduces the risk of death from a variety of cancers, researchers said.

Taking 75 milligrams of aspirin a day for more than five years cut deaths from cancer by 20 percent, according to the study published in The Lancet medical journal today. The researchers found the pill was associated with a reduced risk of death from esophageal, colorectal, lung and prostate cancers.

The findings, based on data from eight trials involving 25,570 patients, expand on previous studies that found aspirin lowered the risk of colon cancer. More studies are needed before aspirin, which can increase the risk of internal bleeding, should be recommended for cancer prevention, said the researchers, led by Peter Rothwell, professor of clinical neurology at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford, England.

“I have been taking aspirin for several years,” Rothwell, who founded the Stroke Prevention Research Unit at the University of Oxford, told reporters in London yesterday. “I personally believe this.”

The risk of death after 20 years was lowered in patients who took aspirin by 60 percent for esophageal cancer, 40 percent for colorectal cancer, 30 percent for lung cancer and about 10 percent for prostate cancer. Aspirin doses greater than 75 milligrams didn’t appear to increase the benefit. The data came from trials whose main purpose was to determine aspirin’s effect on cardiovascular risks such as heart attack and stroke.

Medical Guidelines

Healthy middle-aged men and women may benefit the most from taking aspirin over a long period, and medical guidelines ‘‘may be updated on the back of these results,” Rothwell, 46, said.

“The benefit is likely to be less at 75 to 80 because those cancers that will kill you will have already developed,” he said.

Aspirin blocks prostaglandins, which are involved in a range of functions such as the contraction of blood vessels and inflammation. The eight trials reviewed by Rothwell and his colleagues looked at the effects of aspirin on cardiovascular disease.

Taking aspirin almost doubles the risk of internal bleeding to one in every 2,000 to 3,000 people, Peter Elwood, an epidemiologist at Cardiff University who has published 300 research papers over 50 years, told reporters in London. That doesn’t increase the number of deaths, and the chance of cancer or stroke outweighs the risk from bleeding, he said.

“The man on the street knows betting odds,” said Elwood, 80, who has been taking aspirin since 1974 and wasn’t involved in the study. People should “evaluate the risks for themselves.”

Colon Cancer

A low daily dose of aspirin taken over an average of six years reduced colon cancer risk by 24 percent and the likelihood of dying from the disease by 35 percent, according to a separate study authored by Rothwell published in October by The Lancet. A trial published in the medical journal Gut in September found that 75 milligrams of aspirin taken daily lowered the risk of colon cancer by 22 percent after just one year.

The effects of the drug over a longer period are unknown, and further data on the risks of taking aspirin for tumors that affect women, such as breast cancer, is needed, Rothwell said.

“The problem is you can’t do a 30-year trial,” he said. “It’s tough to do a trial and keep patients compliant for more than a few years.”

The authors of the study plan to publish further research into the link between aspirin and cancer prevention next year, they said in an e-mailed statement.

The researchers funded the study through their own budgets. Rothwell and his four co-authors disclosed to the journal that they had individually received payments from drugmakers including AstraZeneca Plc, Bayer AG, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, Sanofi-Aventis SA, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. and Servier Laboratories Ltd. that were unrelated to the study. Bayer, based in Leverkusen, Germany, is the inventor of aspirin.

“This study remains a very important new development in our understanding of how to prevent cancer in general,” Alastair Watson, a professor of translational medicine at the University of East Anglia who wasn’t involved in the study, said in an e-mailed statement.

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Agustus 12, 2014

diam2suka: RIP Robin Williams … 120814

Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY — bumi2009fans @ 1:58 am

Robbie talks about depression

Robbie Williams will take to the stage tomorrow before more than 100,000 fans – each one singing along adoringly to hits such as Let Me Entertain You, Angels and Feel.

On stage, he is famous for his “cheeky chappie” persona, his energetic performances and obvious love of the reaction he is sure to receive from his audience.

At 29, and with millions of album sales and an £80 million record deal, Williams is every inch the successful pop star.

But, in his most frank interview yet, the singer reveals he is suffering from depression caused by ecstasy use.

And for a year he has been taking anti-depressants, which he refers

to as “speed bumps”, because they control his condition.

The singer – who is playing three nights at the Knebworth music festival – has a long history of alcohol and drug abuse and has received treatment for a cocaine habit.

But he singled out ecstasy as having triggered his depression.

He said: “When you take ecstasy, your brain releases an awful amount of serotonin, and it makes you go “great!”.

The serotonin in your head’s going “wey hey hey, loads of it!”, and then you use it all up and your brain’s got nothing to bathe in.”

Williams said he was aware many people would find his angst annoying, considering his lifestyle.

He said: “People go ‘what have you got to be depressed about?’ And they’re right, I haven’t.

“Now I’m on these pills. Depression isn’t about ‘woe is me, my life is this, that and the other’, it’s like having the worst flu all day that you just can’t kick.”

The singer, who dedicated Angels to his drug counsellor mother, spoke about his depression in a Radio 1 interview with Sara Cox.

He said of the anti-depressants: “I won’t be on them for the rest of my life but … when a kid gets knocked over outside of school, they put speed bumps in.

“I’m putting speed bumps in before the kid gets knocked over.”

A spokesman said: “He spoke about these things because he wanted to.

“He has been friends with Sara Cox for a while and they have a great rapport.”

A study at the London Metropolitan University found even occasional ecstasy users suffer levels of depression four times higher than normal.

Serotonin, a hormone found in the blood, digestive system and brain, is the body’s main mood regulator.

Research suggests after ecstasy enters the bloodstream, it acts on blood cells to release serotonin. Although this produces a high, research suggests in the long term, it can deplete serotonin stores.

Psychologist Dr Cynthia McVey said: “People using ecstasy are putting their future mental health at risk as the full facts are not available.”

Williams says he is now clean and sober.

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-190688/Robbie-talks-depression.html#ixzz3A8duepHn
detik Jakarta – Kematian Robin Williams yang secara tiba-tiba, mengejutkan jutaan penggemarnya di seluruh dunia. Apalagi saat kematiannya diduga disebabkan karena bunuh diri.
Robin Williams ditemukan meninggal dunia di kediamannya di Tiburon, California pada Senin (11/8/2014) siang waktu setempat. Aktor peraih Oscar tersebut menghembuskan napas terakhir di usia 63 tahun serta meninggalkan satu orang istri dan tiga orang anak.
Menurut pihak berwenang di Marin County, panggilan kepada 911 diteima pada pukul 11.55 pagi waktu setempat. Bahwa seorang pria dewasa ditemukan dalam keadaan tak sadarkan diri dan tak lagi bernapas. Pihak berwajib dan satuan pemadam kebakaran segera menuju ke tempat kejadian dan tiba pada siang hari.Robin Williams pun dinyatakan meninggal dunia pada 12.02 siang.
Divisi Koroner pihak kepolisian mengungkapkan adanya dugaan bunuh diri dalam kasus ini. Saat ditemukan, Robin berada dalam keadaan tak sadarkan diri karena asfiksia atau sesak napas.
Menurut seorang sumber, akhir-akhir ini Robin Williams memang sedang dalam pertarungan melawan depresi. Hal ini dipercaya menjadi salah satu alasan dibalik kematian sang bintang film ‘Jumanji’.
Sang istri, Susan Schneider adalah orang terakhir yang melihat Robin Williams sebelum ditemukan meninggal dunia. Menurut pengakuan Susan yang disampaikan oleh pihak berwajib, ia terakhir kali melihat sang suami masih dalam keadaan baik-baik saja pada Minggu (10/8) pukul 10.00 malam.
gw inget dosen psikiatri yang bilang bahwa, jika seorang penderita depresi sudah diobati lalu kondisi penderita menjadi lebih sadar diri dan tampak menjadi lebih waras, nah, saat itu lah penderita memahami kondisinya lebih baik … well, saat lebih memahami kondisinya tersebut itu lah yang memicu keinginan bunuh diri … jika tidak diintervensi oleh pihak lain yang bisa membantu pemahamannya, maka kelanjutan jalan berpikirnya akan menentukan nasib terakhirnya … turut berduka
 detik Jakarta

Kematian Robin Williams diakui sebagai kabar yang tragis dan sangat mengejutkan berbagai pihak termasuk keluarga. Padahal beberapa jam sebelum ditemukan meninggal dunia, bintang film ‘Good Will Hunting’ tersebut masih terlihat baik-baik saja.

Menurut keterangan pihak berwajib, sang istri, Susan Schneider, adalah orang terakhir yang melihat Robin sebelum ditemukan meninggal dunia Senin (11/8) siang. Susan terakhir kali melihat sang aktor dalam keadaan baik-baik saja pada Minggu (10/8) pukul 10.00 malam waktu setempat.

Sayang, hingga kini pihak keluarga belum bisa dimintai keterangan lebih lanjut mengenai kabar duka ini. Namun, seorang sumber terdekat sebelumnya telah meminta publik untuk menjaga privasi mereka saat ini.

“Keluarga meminta dengan hormat untuk menjaga privasi mereka dalam waktu yang sulit seperti ini,” ujar sumber tersebut dilansir dari E! News, Selasa (12/8/2014).

Robin Williams ditemukan meninggal dunia pada Senin pukul 12.02 siang waktu setempat. Sang aktor meninggalkan satu orang istri dan tiga orang anak.

(kmb/wes)

Agustus 5, 2014

diam2suka: PELIHARA lah KARANG, kota2ku … 050814

Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY — bumi2009fans @ 12:38 am

Washington (Antara News /Xinhua-OANA) – Coral reefs may offer a comparable but “significantly cheaper” alternative to artificial coastal defenses to protect coastal cities in many parts of the world from incoming waves, storms and rising seas, an international team of researchers said Tuesday.

“Coral reefs can be an effective first line of defense and these benefits are important for many nations,” the researchers, led by lead marine scientist of the Nature Conservancy Michael Beck, wrote in the British journal Nature Communications.

The researchers performed a meta-analysis of 27 previous studies of how coral reefs around the world dissipate wave energy, conducted in conditions ranging from normal surf to hurricane- level waves.

They found that coral reefs reduce wave energy that would otherwise impact coastlines by an average of 97 percent.

The reef crest, or shallowest part of the reef where the waves break first, dissipates 86 percent of wave energy on its own, they said.

“It is a huge reduction,” said study co-author Fiorenza Micheli, a professor of biological sciences at Stanford University, adding that the effects were comparable to artificial breakwaters engineered specifically to dissipate wave energy.

Restoring and recovering reefs also makes economic sense. The median cost for building artificial breakwaters is 19,791 U.S. dollars per meter, compared to 1,290 dollars per meter for coral reef restoration projects, they said.

“On average, the costs of the restoration projects were significantly cheaper than costs of building tropical breakwaters, ” the researchers wrote. “As living structures, reefs have the potential for self-repair and thus lower maintenance costs as compared with artificial structures.”

The researchers estimated that about 197 million people worldwide can receive risk reduction benefits from coral reefs alone or may have to bear higher costs of disasters if the reefs are degraded.

These are the people in the villages, towns and cities in low- lying, risk-prone coastal areas fewer than 10 meters above sea level and within 50 kilometers of coral reefs, mostly in Indonesia, India, and the Philippines, they said.

Currently, about two-thirds of the worlds coral reefs were considered threatened by human activities, increasing ocean temperatures and acidification.

“While there are many concerns about the future of corals reefs in the face of climate change, there are still many reasons for optimism about the future of coral reefs particularly if we manage other local stressors such as pollution and development,” Micheli added.

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