eK0n0mi taK seriU$ d/h ekonomitakserius@blogspot.com

Juni 29, 2014

diam2suka: TAR1F l1$tr1k …. naeK : 290614

Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY — bumi2009fans @ 3:18 am

TRIBUNNEWS.COM, JAKARTA – Direktur Jenderal Ketenagalistrikan Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM) Jarman memastikan tarif listrik untuk enam golongan akan naik bertahap setiap 2 bulan, mulai 1 Juli 2014.

“Sudah diatur di APBN-P 2014, nggak bisa mundur lagi, tinggal tunggu revisi Peraturan Menteri ESDM nomor 4 Tahun 2014 yang akan keluar sebelum 1 Juli 2014,” kata Jarman kepada wartawan di kantornya, Kamis (26/6/2014).

Berdasarkan data Kementerian ESDM, golongan yang akan terkena kenaikan tarif berikut rincian perubahan tarif tersebut adalah sebagai berikut:

(1). Untuk golongan I-3, tarif semula Rp 864 per kWh akan naik menjadi Rp 964 per kWh. Pada 1 September 2014, tarif akan naik lagi menjadi Rp 1.075 per kWh, dan per 1 November 2014 kembali naik menjadi Rp 1.200/kWh.

(2). Untuk golongan R-2 dengan 3.500 VA hingga 5.500 VA, tarif semula Rp 1.145 per kWh akan naik menjadi Rp 1.210 per kWh. Per 1 September 2014 tarif ini akan naik lagi menjadi Rp 1.279/kWh, dan per 1 November 2014 kembali naik menjadi Rp 1.352/kWh.

(3). Untuk golongan R-1 dengan kapasitas 2.200 VA, tarif semula Rp 1.004 per kWh akn naik menjadi Rp 1.109/kWh. Lalu, per 1 September 2014 naik lagi menjadi Rp 1.224/kWh, dan per 1 November 2014 kembali naik menjadi Rp 1.353/kWh.

(4). Untuk golongan R-1 dengan kapasitas 1.300 VA, tarif semula Rp 997 per kWh akan naik menjadi Rp 1.090/kWh. Per 1 September 2014, tarif ini naik lagi menjadi Rp 1.214/kWh, dan kembali naik pada 1 November 2014 menjadi Rp 1.352/kWh.

(5). Untuk golongan P-3, dari Rp 864 per kWh naik menjadi Rp 1.104/kWh. Per 1 September 2014 naik lagi menjadi Rp 1.221/kWh, lalu per 1 November 2014 kembali naik menjadi Rp 1.352/kWh.

(6). Untuk golongan P2 dengan kapasitas di atas 200 kVA, tarif semula Rp 1.062 per kWh naik menjadi Rp 1.081/kWh. Per 1 September 2014 naik lagi menjadi Rp 1.139 perkWh, lalu per 1 November 2014 kembali naik menjadi Rp 1.200 per kWh.

Khusus periode kenaikan tarif untuk industri golongan I-3 dan I-4 sudah dimulai pada 1 Mei 2014. Golongan I-3 adalah adalah industri dengan kapasitas daya listrik terpasang menengah dan non-perusahaan terbuka. Adapun golongan I-4 adalah pengguna listrik tegangan tinggi.

Periode lanjutan periodisasi kenaikan tarif untuk kedua golongan industri akan sama dengan lima kelompok lain yang baru dimulai pada 1 Juli 2014, yaitu 1 Juli-31 Agustus 2014, 1 September-31 Oktober 2014, dan 1 November 2014.

“Tahun depan akan ada adjustmen, sehingga golongan yang sudah tidak disubsidi jangan masuk ke dalam golongan subsidi lagi, meskipun harga ICP naik, dollar naik,” kata Jarman.

Iklan

diam2suka: TEKANAN daraH (290614)

Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY — bumi2009fans @ 2:46 am

Richard E. Klabunde, PhD

As blood is pumped out of the left ventricle into the arteries, pressure is generated.  The mean arterial pressure (MAP) is determined by the cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and central venous pressure (CVP) according to the following relationship, which is based upon the relationship between flow, pressure and resistance:

 

MAP = (CO × SVR) + CVP

Because CVP is usually at or near 0 mmHg, this relationship is often simplified to:

MAP approx = CO × SVR

Therefore, changes in either CO or SVR will affect MAP. If CO and SVR change reciprocally and proportionately, then MAP will not change. For example, if CO doubles and SVR decreases by one-half, MAP does not change (if CVP = 0). It is important to note that variables found  in equation 1 are all interdependent.  This means that changing one variable changes all of the others.

 

mean arterial pressure

In practice, MAP is not determined by knowing the CO and SVR, but rather by direct or indirect measurements of arterial pressure. From the aortic pressure trace over time, the shape of the pressure trace yields a mean pressure value (geometric mean) that is less than the arithmetic average of the systolic and diastolic pressures as shown to the right.

 

At normal resting heart rates, MAP can be approximated by the following equation:

For example, if systolic pressure is 120 mmHg and diastolic pressure is 80 mmHg, then the mean arterial pressure is approximately 93 mmHg using this calculation. At high heart rates, however, MAP is closer to the arithmetic average of systolic and diastolic pressure (therefore, almost 100 mmHg in this example) because of the change in shape of the arterial pressure pulse (it becomes narrower). To determine mean arterial pressure with absolute accuracy, analog electronic circuitry or digital techniques are used. In normal clinical practice, however, systolic and diastolic pressures are measured, not MAP. That measurement is only measured when SVR needs to be calculated.

To learn what factors alter cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance, and therefore alter arterial pressure, CLICK HERE

Revised 4/23/2014

Hypertension – Introduction

 

High blood pressure, termed “hypertension,” is a condition that afflicts almost 1 billion people worldwide and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. More than 20% of Americans are hypertensive, and one-third of these Americans are not even aware they are hypertensive. Therefore, this disease is sometimes called the “silent killer.” This disease is usually asymptomatic until the damaging effects of hypertension (such as stroke, myocardial infarction, renal dysfunction, visual problems, etc.) are observed. Hypertension is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction (“heart attacks”) and stroke.

Definition of Hypertension

Arterial blood pressure is “normal” when the systolic pressure is 90-119 mmHg and the diastolic pressure is 60-79 mmHg. When the arterial pressure is ≥120/80 mmHg, a person is said to be prehypertensive or hypertensive (see table below). Mean arterial pressure is also elevated in hypertension, but it is not usually measured in people. In past years, the diastolic value was emphasized in assessing hypertension.  However, elevations in systolic pressure (“systolic hypertension”) are also associated with increased incidence of coronary and cerebrovascular disease (e.g., stroke). Therefore, we now recognize that both systolic and diastolic pressure values are important to note. According to U.S. national guidelines (JNC 7 Report and JNC 8 Report), the following represents different stages of hypertension:

Classification Systolic
(mmHg)
Diastolic
(mmHg)
Normal <120 <80
Prehypertension 120-139 80-89
Stage 1 140-159 90-99
Stage 2 >160 >100

Two Classes of Hypertension

In 90-95% of patients presenting with hypertension, the cause is unknown.  This condition is called primary (or essential) hypertension.  The remaining 5-10% of hypertensive patients have hypertension that results secondarily from renal disease, endocrine disorders, or other identifiable causes. This form of hypertension is called secondary hypertension.

 

Hemodynamic Basis of Hypertension

Regardless of the origin of hypertension, the actual increase in arterial blood pressure is caused by either an increase in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) or an increase in cardiac output (CO). The former is determined by the vascular tone (i.e., state of constriction) of systemic resistance vessels, whereas the latter is determined by heart rate and stroke volume.  Therefore, in order to understand how arterial blood pressure can become elevated, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms that regulate both SVR and CO.

Treatment of Hypertension

Most people with hypertension are treated with antihypertensive medications. In most forms of hypertension, the hypertensive state is maintained by an elevation in blood volume, which in turn increases cardiac output by the Frank-Starling relationshipDiuretic drugs, which enhance the removal of sodium and water by the kidneys and thereby decrease blood volume, are very effective in the treatment of hypertension. Hypertension is also commonly treated with drugs that decrease cardiac output. These cardioinhibitory drugs either block beta-adrenoceptors on the heart (i.e., beta-blockers) or L-type calcium channels (i.e., calcium-channel blockers), which decreases cardiac output by decreasing heart rate and contractility (inotropy). Vasodilator drugs, which decrease systemic vascular resistance, are also used to treat hypertension. Included in these drugs are alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists (alpha-blockers), direct-acting vasodilators, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. A complete list of drugs used to treat hypertension can be found by clicking here.

Go to:  primary hypertension

Revised 4/23/2014

 

Definition of Hypotension and its Causes

Hypotension is a physiologic state in which the arterial blood pressure is abnormally low. For an adult, hypotension exists when the systolic pressure is less than 90 mmHg and the diastolic pressure is less than 60 mmHg. Because arterial pressure is determined by cardiac output, venous pressure and systemic vascular resistance (Click here for more details), a reduction in any of these variables can lead to hypotension. Hypotension may result from:

  1. Reduced cardiac output
  2. Hypovolemia
  3. Blood volume redistribution
  4. Reduced systemic vascular resistance
  5. Vascular obstruction (e.g., pulmonary embolism)

 

The following diagram shows diseases or conditions that may result in reduced cardiac output, or those related to abnormal vascular function.

hypotension causes

 

Cardiac output can be reduced by arrhythmias, structural disease or hypovolemia. Bradycardia caused by a low sinus rate or resulting from atrioventricular block reduces cardiac output. Tachycardia, by reducing ventricular filling time, can cause a large reduction in stroke volume and therefore cardiac output. Ventricular fibrillation causes cardiac output to fall to zero, and therefore leads to profound hypotension. Cardiac structural disease such as cardiomyopathies can impair either systolic function (inotropic state) or diastolic function (ventricular filling) and thereby reduce cardiac output and arterial pressure. Valve disease, pericardial disease, and congenital defects, can impair ventricular filling or net forward flow, thereby reducing cardiac output. Ischemic heart disease caused by atherosclerosis or thromboembolism impairs ventricular function. Primary pulmonary hypertension can lead to right ventricular failure and impaired left ventricular filling and output. Hypovolemia (e.g., hemorrhage) and orthostatic volume shifts reduce cardiac output by decreasing central venous pressure and ventricular filling (preload), which impairs the pumping ability of the heart (Frank-Starling mechanism). Excessive water loss (dehydration) caused by profuse sweating, restricted water intake, or use of diuretic drugs can also lead to a hypovolemic state.

Hypotension may also be of vascular origin, and is generally caused by excessive systemic vasodilation (decreased systemic vascular resistance), which may result from sepsis, anaphylaxis, autonomic dysfunction (e.g., diabetic neuropathy), neurogenic shock (e.g., spinal cord injury) or drugs (e.g., antihypertensive vasodilators). A second vascular origin of hypotension is vascular obstruction such as pulmonary embolism that diminishes venous return to the left ventricle, thereby decreasing its output.

To understand more fully the physiology and pathophysiology of hypotension, see the Blood Pressure Regulation Tutorial.

Revised 4/28/2014

beautiful: lage, VIT D … 140312_290614

Filed under: Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 12:03 am

March 12, 2012, 1:21 pm
Reasons That Vitamin D May Matter
By JANE E. BRODY, Columnist
nyt

At least once a week, someone, usually a woman over 50, asks me about vitamin D. Perhaps a routine checkup has revealed a deficiency, prompting the doctor to recommend an over-the-counter supplement or, in severe cases, large prescription doses to correct the problem.

Often, though, the concern is bone health. Without vitamin D, the body cannot properly absorb calcium, and bones become fragile. At the annual meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons last month, researchers reported that among 889 adult patients treated for a fracture at a Missouri trauma center, blood levels of vitamin D were “insufficient” in 78 percent and “frankly deficient” in 39 percent. The study group excluded those with known risk factors for vitamin D deficiency.

A second report, by doctors in Seoul, South Korea, found vitamin D levels were “significantly lower” among 104 postmenopausal women who had broken a wrist than among 107 age-matched controls without a fracture.

But increasingly I receive inquiries regarding research suggesting that raising blood levels of vitamin D may protect against chronic or life-threatening diseases. Many studies in recent years have linked low levels to health risks like heart disease, high blood pressure, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases, prompting many health-conscious men and women to think that supplements of vitamin D are protective.

Alas, there are still no large-scale randomized controlled clinical trials — the gold standard of human research — to prove or disprove the value of vitamin D supplementation beyond its well-known benefits to bone health.

Nonetheless, Dr. Kevin A. Fiscella, a public health specialist and family physician at the University of Rochester, has decided to take 1,000 international units of vitamin D each day, based on data from his studies linking racial disparities in vitamin D levels to disease risk and his belief that “it can’t hurt and it may help.”

A Vitamin With Broad Influence

In an interview, Dr. Fiscella emphasized that his findings strongly suggest, but do not prove, that vitamin D deficiencies cause or contribute to diseases like colorectal cancer, high blood pressure and kidney and heart disease, which affect black Americans at higher rates than whites. The findings are bolstered by known biological effects of vitamin D and by the fact that widespread vitamin D deficiencies occur among blacks living in the Northern Hemisphere.

Nearly every body tissue has receptors for vitamin D, among them the intestines, brain, heart, skin, sex organs, breasts and lymphocytes, as well as the placenta. The vitamin, which acts as a hormone, is known to influence the expression of more than 200 genes.

In laboratory studies, it has been shown to have anticancer activity, inhibiting the growth and spread of tumors. There is also suggestive but inconclusive evidence that vitamin D deficiency plays a role in asthma, Type 2 diabetes, autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, pre-eclampsia and low birth weight, and neuropsychological disorders like depression, autism and memory loss. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble essential nutrient that naturally enters the body primarily through the skin, where ultraviolet B radiation in sunlight stimulates production of previtamin D. This, in turn, is converted to the biologically active form, vitamin D hormone, in the kidneys.

Very few foods naturally contain meaningful levels of vitamin D; mostly they are fatty cold-water fish like salmon, mackerel, bluefish, anchovies, sardines and tuna, as well as cod liver oil. Some foods are fortified with the vitamin, especially milk, infant formula and, more recently, some brands of orange juice, yogurt, cheese and breakfast cereal.

Several factors work against achieving the levels of vitamin D known to prevent bone loss, let alone other diseases should a cause-and-effect ever be established.

One is skin color. Dark skin evolved in equatorial Africa, where the sun is intense year round and just a brief daily exposure to UVB (the sun’s burning rays) is sufficient to achieve adequate blood levels of vitamin D. But melanin in the skin acts as a natural sunblock, and among blacks living in the United States, where sun is less intense, less of the previtamin is produced.

Dr. Fiscella’s studies, based on thousands of adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2001 to 2006, revealed much higher rates of vitamin D deficiency among non-Hispanic blacks than non-Hispanic whites. Furthermore, in separate studies, lower levels of vitamin D among blacks across the country were associated with a greater incidence of colorectal cancer, high blood pressure, protein in urine (a precursor of kidney disease) and cardiovascular deaths.

Avoiding Deficiency

Warnings about the cosmetic and cancerous consequences of undue sun exposure have prompted millions of health-conscious Americans to protect themselves from UVB with protective clothing and liberal use of sunscreen on exposed skin. The latter can reduce previtamin D production in skin by more than 90 percent.

In addition, because vitamin D is stored in body fat, the dramatic increase in obesity in this country is placing more people, regardless of skin color, at risk of inadequate levels of D in blood serum.

Finally, consumption of milk has declined significantly, and most other popular dairy products are not fortified with D.

As a result, growing numbers of light-skinned Americans are finding that they, too, are not getting enough D to bring their serum levels to 20 nanograms per milliliter, the level deemed adequate by the Institute of Medicine, and even fewer reach 30 nanograms, the level many bone specialists and vitamin D researchers consider more desirable.

A placebo-controlled clinical trial called Vital, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health and due to be completed in 2016, is assessing the effect of a daily supplement of 2,000 I.U. of vitamin D on the risk of developing heart disease, cancer and stroke among 20,000 men over 50 and women over 55 with no prior history of these diseases.

Meanwhile, the Endocrine Society recommends that people at risk for vitamin D deficiency be screened to determine their serum levels, including those with bone disease, chronic kidney disease, liver failure, malabsorption syndromes (resulting from cystic fibrosis, irritable bowel disease, weight-reduction surgery or abdominal radiation), overactive parathyroid and granuloma-forming disorders. People taking drugs like anticonvulsants, glucocorticoids, antiretrovirals, antifungals and cholestyramine also should be tested, as well as older adults with a history of falls or nontraumatic fracture.

Certain groups at risk for a deficiency also warrant screening: blacks, obese children and adults, and pregnant or nursing women, Dr. Fiscella said.

INILAHCOM. Melbourne — Ada cara murah dan efektif mengobati tekanan darah tinggi, yaitu dengan mengkonsumsi suplemen vitamin D.

Jurnal media The Lancet, yang mempublikasikan hasil penelitian sejumlah pakar University of South Australia, memberitakan usulan untuk memberikan suplemen vitamin D telah dilakukan sejak lama. Namun itu diabaikan karena belum ada bukti yang jelas.

Ini mendorong sejumlah ilmuwan melakukan penelitian untuk meyakinkan dokter akan kegunaan suplemen vitamin D. Mereka mencari hubungan sebab-akibat vitamin D dengan tekanan darah tinggi.

Caranya, dengan mengukur variasi genetik yang mempengaruhi tingkat vitamin D terhadap tekanan darah seseorang.

Penelitian dilakukan dengan melihat data lebih 146 ribu catatan pasien di Eropa dan Amerika Utara. Mereka menemukan setiap kenaikan 10 persen konsentrasi vitamin D, terjadi menurunan tekanan darah delapan persen.

“Jika temuan ini diperkuat bukti lebih lanjut, vitamin D bisa menjadi alternatif pengobatan tekanan darah tinggi,” ujar Prof Elina Hypponen dari University of South Australia.

Thembi Nkala, dari British Heart Foundation, mengatakan temuan ini merupakan kemajuan mengesankan di bidang medis. Namun, katanya, harus ada penelitian lebih lanjut untuk mengkonfirmasi kadar vitamin D rendah dengan tekanan darah tinggi.[tst]

Juni 20, 2014

diam2suka: emaaa(Rp539.000,-)AA$ … 200614

Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 2:12 am
Tags: , ,

kontan JAKARTA. Harga emas melambung mendekati level tertinggi tiga pekan. Pelaku pasar semakin getol mengoleksi emas sebagai alternatif investasi, sebab Amerika Serikat (AS) masih menjaga suku bunga di level rendah.

Data Bloomberg menunjukkan, Kamis (19/6) pukul 16.45 WIB, emas untuk pengiriman Agustus 2014 di Divisi Comex melaju 0,75% dibanding hari sebelumnya menjadi US$ 1.282,3 per ons troi.

Posisi itu mendekati harga tertinggi tiga pekan yang tercetak pada 16 Juni 2014. Kala itu, emas sempat mendaki ke level US$ 1,284.96, akibat konflik di Ukraina dan Irak.

Pergerakan positif harga emas juga terjadi di dalam negeri. Kemarin, (19/6), emas batangan pecahan 1 gram di Divisi Logam Mulia-PT Antam Tbk meloncat Rp 6.000 menjadi Rp 539.000 per gram.

The Federal Reserve, Janet Yellen menegaskan, meski bank sentral melanjutkan pemangkasan stimulus senilai US$ 10 miliar menjadi US$ 35 miliar, namun akan tetap menerapkan kebijakan akomodatif. Ini mengindikasikan tidak ada rencana kenaikan suku bunga dalam waktu dekat. Paling cepat suku bunga dinaikkan mulai tahun depan.

Kebijakan FOMC tidak agresif dan tidak menimbulkan kejutan di pasar. Efeknya, justru positif untuk harga emas,” kata Edel Tully, analis UBS AG, seperti dikutip Bloomberg, Kamis (19/6).

Nanang Wahyudin, analis PT SoeGee Futures menilai, secara umum, kebijakan yang diambil The Fed memicu dollar AS melemah. Maklum, selain belum mengerek tingkat suku bunga AS, The Fed juga memangkas target pertumbuhan ekonomi tahun ini menjadi 2,1%-2,3%, dari sebelumnya 2,8%-3,0%.

Selain itu, The Fed menyinggung tingkat pengangguran AS yang masih relatif tinggi. Bank sentral menilai, perbaikan tingkat pengangguran butuh proses, sebab saat ini sedang tahap pembangunan lapangan kerja. “Pelemahan dollar AS ini yang mengangkat harga emas,” ujar Nanang.

Target US$ 1.350

Analis PT Pefindo, Guntur Tri Hariyanto memperkirakan, efek kebijakan The Fed masih akan menyokong harga emas. Hingga akhir pekan ini, ia menduga, logam mulia akan lanjut reli pada kisaran US$ 1.260-1.295 per ons troi. Adapun, hingga akhir tahun ini, emas ditaksir bisa bertengger di US$ 1.350 per ons troi.

Secara teknikal, Nanang bilang, harga emas dalam jangka pendek masih tetap terjaga. Ini terlihat dari harga yang saat ini berada di atas garis moving average (MA) 50, MA 100 dan MA 200. Indikator relative strength index (RSI) juga berada di level 63%, yang mengindikasi bullish.

Selain itu, garis MACD masih berada di area positif yang mengindikasi bullish. Sementara, stochastic berada di antara level 70%-71%.

Nanang menduga, hingga akhir pekan ini, emas masih naik dan bergulir pada range US$1.269-US$ 1.285 per ons troi. “Pada akhir tahun ini, bisa menyentuh US$ 1.350 per ons troi,” imbuhnya.
Editor: Dupla KS

JAKARTA – Harga emas PT Aneka Tambang Tbk (Antam) pada perdagangan hari ini naik Rp6.000 per gram menjadi Rp539.000 per gram. Sebelumnya harga emas berada di posisi Rp533.000 per gram.

Seperti dikutip dari logammulia.com, Kamis (30/1/2014), harga beli kembali (buyback) emas perseroan juga naik Rp6.000 per gram menjadi Rp479.000 per gram.

Sementara itu, harga jual emas Antam ukuran 1 gram dibanderol pada harga Rp539.000 per gram. Harga jual emas ukuran 2 gram dihargai Rp1.038.000, dengan harga per gram  Rp519.000.

Adapun, harga emas 3 gram dipatok Rp1.539.000 dengan harga Rp513.000 per gram. Harga emas 4 gram senilai Rp2.040.000, dengan harga per gram Rp510.000.

Selain itu, harga jual emas 5 gram ditetapkan Rp2.550.000 dengan harga per gram dihargai Rp510.000. Harga emas 10 gram dijual Rp5.050.000, dengan harga per gram Rp505.000.

Sementara, harga emas 25 gram Rp12.550.000 dengan harga per gram Rp502.000. Harga emas 50 gram sebesar Rp25.050.000, dengan harga per gram Rp502.000.

Kemudian, harga emas 100 gram sebesar Rp50.050.000, dengan harga per gram Rp500.000. Harga 250 gram mencapai Rp125.000.000, dengan harga per gram Rp500.000. Emas ukuran 500 gram dihargai Rp249.800.000, dengan harga per gram Rp499.600

http://economy.okezone.com/read/2014/06/19/320/1000981/naik-rp6-000-harga-emas-antam-dibanderol-rp539-ribu

Sumber : OKEZONE.COM

Juni 6, 2014

diam2suka: dekstrometorphan YANG AKAN DITARIK … 060614

Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY — bumi2009fans @ 1:39 am

Liputan6.com, Jakarta Badan Pengawasan Obat dan Makanan Republik Indonesia (BPOM) berencana menarik 130 merek obat yang mengandung desktrometorfan tunggal per akhir Juni 2014. Sebab, obat yang seharusnya bermanfaat untuk menekan batuk, justru dimanfaatkan untuk menggeser posisi putaw dan shabu di kalangan remaja.

Menurut Direktur Utama Pengawasan Napza Badan POM, Dra. Sri Utami Ekaningtyas, Apt, MM, penarikan ini seharusnya sudah dilakukan sejak tahun lalu. Hanya saja, hal itu terhambat karena obat-obat itu sudah terlanjur dijual bebas di pasaran.

“Tapi, bila setelah 30 Juni 2014 masih ada yang memproduksi atau bahkan menjual obat-obat ini, akan diberi sanksi sesuai dengan UU Kesehatan,” kata Sri Utami.

Di Swedia, kata Sri menambahkan, pada 2006 obat berjenis desktro telah dikategorikan sebagai narkotika. Sedangkan di negara tetanga, Singapura, obat jenis bisa didapatkan asalkan sesuai dengan resep dokter.

Penggunaan putaw, shabu, dan ganja pada usia muda mengalami pergeseran. Saat ini, justru penyalahgunaan zat berbahan dekstrometorfan tunggal pada masyarakat usia muda mengalami peningkatan, dan mencapai kondisi yang mengkhawatirkan serta cukup memprihatinkan.

Fenomena penyalahgunaan dekstro tablet ini tengah menjadi tren pada anak-anak 5 tahun terakhir ini. Sebenarnya, obat ini memiliki efek pusing dan sering digunakan sebagai obat batuk. Saking kreatifnya, obat ini justru digunakan untuk hal yang tidak-tidak,” kata dia menjelaskan.

Dalam dokumen yang Health Liputan6.com dapatkan dari Direktur Pengawasan Nafza BPOM RI, Robby Nuzly, disebutkan 130 daftar obat yang mengandung desktrometorfan tunggal yang akan ditarik dari pasaran;

Afidex, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 1000 Tablet, Pendaftar: Afifarma Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Afifarma Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 1000 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Armoxindo Farma Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus 10 BLS @ 10 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar Armoxindo Farma Indonesia
Romilar, Kemasan: Dus 25 Catch Cover @ 1 Strip @ 6 Tablet Salut Gula, Pendaftar: Bayer Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus Botol Plastik 100 ML, Pendaftar: Berlico Mulia Farma Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 60 ML, Pendaftar: Berlico Mulia Farma, Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: POT Plastik 1000 Tablet, Pendaftar: Berlico Mulia Farma, Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Bentuk Kemasan: Dus 10 Strip @ 10 Tablet, Pendaftar: Berlico Mulia Farma Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 1000 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Bernofarm Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 100 ML, Pendaftar: Bernofarm Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 60 ML, Pendatar: Bernofarm-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Strip @ 10 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Bernofarm-Indonesia
Komix DT, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Sachet @ 7 ML, Pendaftar: Bintang Toedjoe, Jakarta – Indonesia
Komix DT, Kemasan: Dus, 30 Sachet @ 7 ML, Pendaftar: Bintang Toedjoe, Jakarta – Indonesia
Komix DT, Kemasan: Hanger, 15 Sachet @ 7 ML, Pendaftar: Bintang Toedjoe, Jakarta – Indonesia
Komix DT, Kemasan: Dus, 3 Tube Botol @ 7 ML, Pendaftar: Bintang Toedjoe, Jakarta – Indonesia
Komix DT, Kemasan: Dus, 6 Tube Botol @ 7 ML, Pendaftar: Bintang Toedjoe, Jakarta – Indonesia
Bisolvon Antitusif, Kemasan: Dus, Botol 125 ML, Pendaftar: Boehringer Ingelheim-Indonesia
Bisolvon Antitusif, Dus, Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Boehringer Ingelheim-Indonesia
Dextrobat, Kemasan: Dus, Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Candra Nusantara Jaya-Indonesia
Dextrobat, Kemasan: Dus, Botol 100 ML, Pendaftar: Candra Nusantara Jaya-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Cendo, Jakarta-Indonesia
Citosiv, Kemasan: Botol 100 ML, Pendaftar: Ciubros Farma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Ciubros Farma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Strip @ 10 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Ciubros Farma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 1000 Tablet Salut, Pendaftar: Ciubros Farma –Indonesia
Starex, Kemasan: Botol 200 Tablet, Pendaftar: Combiphar-Indonesia
Starex, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Strip @ 10 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Combiphar-Indonesia
Starex, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Combiphar-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 1000 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Combiphar-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Strip @ 10 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Combiphar-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 60 ML, Pendaftar: Combiphar Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 1000 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Coronet Crown-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 60 ML, Pendaftar: Coronet Crown-Indonesia
Calmerphan-L, Kemasan: Dus, Botol 90 ML, Pendaftar: Darya Varia Laboratoria-Indonesia
Vicks Formula 44 DT, Kemasan: Dus, Botol Plastik 27 ML, Pendaftar: Darya Varia Laboratoria-Indonesia
Vicks Formula 44 DT, Kemasan: Dus, Botol Plastik 30 ML, Pendaftar: Darya Varia Laboratoria-Indonesia
Vicks Formula 44 DT, Kemasan: Dus, Botol Plastik 120 ML, Pendaftar: Pendaftar: Darya Varia Laboratoria-Indonesia
Vicks Formula 44 DT, Kemasan: Dus, Botol Plastik 54 ML, Pendaftar: Darya Varia Laboratoria-Indonesia
Vicks Formula 44 DT, Kemasan: Dus, Botol Plastik 60 ML, Pendaftar: Darya Varia Laboratoria-Indonesia
Vicks Formula 44 DT, Kemasan: Dus, 12 Sachet @ 6,7 ML, Pendaftar: Darya Varia Laboratoria-Indonesia
Vicks Formula 44 DT, Kemasan: Dus, 5 Sachet @ 6,7 ML, Pendaftar: Darya Varia Laboratoria-Indonesia
Vicks Formula 44 DT, Kemasan: Dus, Botol Plastik 100 ML, Pendaftar: Darya Varia Laboratoria-Indonesia
Dextrodef, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Dasa Esa Farma-Indonesia
Detusif, Kemasan: Dus, Botol @ 100 ML, Pendaftar: Dexa Medica-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Dexa Medica-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Strip @ 10 Tablet, Pendaftar: Dexa Medica-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Blister @ 10 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Dexa Medica-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Erela-Indonesia
Erla Code, Kemasan: Botol 100 ML, Pendaftar: Erela-Indonesia
Erla Code, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Erela-Indonesia
Erpha Methor, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Catch Cover @ 10 Tablet, Pendaftar: Erlimpex-Indonesia
Erpha Methor, Kemasan: Dus, Botol 500 Tablet, Pendaftar: Erlimpex-Indonesia
Dextromethoprhan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 60 ML, Pendaftar: Errita Pharma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 1000 Tablet, Pendaftar: Errita Pharma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Gelas 60 ML, Pendaftar: First Medifarma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 1.000 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: First Medifarma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Strip @ 10 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: First Medifarma-Indonesia
Milaro, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Strip @ 10 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Firsti Medifarma Indonesia
Milaro, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 1000 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: First Medifarma Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: 60 ML, Pendaftar: Gratis Husada Pharma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Strip @ 10 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Gratis Husada Pharma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 1000 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Gratia Husada Pharma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Harsen-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, Botol Cokelat 60 ML, Pendaftar: Hexparm Jaya-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 100 ML, Pendaftar: Holi Pharma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 100 ML, Pendaftar: Imfarmind Farmasi Industri-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Indofarma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 1000 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Indofarma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Blister @ 10 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Indofarma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 100 ML, Pendaftar: Infar Arispharma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Infar Arispharma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Strip @ 10 Tablet, Pendaftar: Intijaya Meta Ratna Farma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 1000 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Intijaya Meta Ratna Farma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Blister @ 10 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Intijaya Meta Ratna Farma-Indonesia
Metadex, Kemasan: Botol 100 ML, Pendaftar: Intijaya Meta Ratna Farma-Indonesia
Metadex, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 1000 Tablet, Pendaftar: Intijaya Meta Ratna Farma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 1000 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Itrasal-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Kaleng 1000 Tablet Salut Gula, Pendaftar: Kimia Farma, Bandung-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Palstik 1000 Tablet, Pendaftar: Kimia Farma, Bandung-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Strip @ 10 Tablet, Pendaftar: Kimia Farma, Bandung-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol @ 60 ML, Pendaftar: Kimia Farma, Bandung-Indonesia
Siladex Antitussive, Kemasan: Dus, Botol Plastik 30 ML, Pendaftar: Konimex Indonesia
Siladex Antitussive, Kemasan: Dus, Botol Plastik 60 ML, Pendaftar: Konimex Indonesia
Camidex, Kemasan: Dus, Botol 100 ML, Pendaftar: Lucas Djaya Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Lucas Djaya, Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 1000 Tablet, Pendaftar: Marin Liza Farmasi-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Strip @ 10 Tablet, Pendaftar: Marin Liza Farmasi-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Kaleng A 1000 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar Meprofarm-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Strop @ 10 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Mersifarma Tirmaku Mercusana-Indonesia
Xepafan, Kemasan: Botol 100, Pendaftar: Metiska Farma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, 1 Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Molex Ayus-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Mutifa Industri Farmasi-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 60 ML, Pendaftar: Novapharin-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 1000 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Novapharin-Indonesia
Dextronova, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 1000 Tablet, Pendaftar: Novapharin-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 60 ML, Pendaftar: Nufarindo-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 60 ML, Pendaftar: Pabrik P.I.M Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Phapros-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Strip @ 10 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Phapros-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 1000 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: Phapros-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Phyto Kemo Agung Farma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol @ 60 ML, Pendaftar: Rama Emerald Multi Sukses-Indonesia
Dextromteorfan HBR, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Strip @ 10 Tablet, Pendaftar: Saka Farma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 1000 Tablet, Pendaftar: Sampharindo Perdana-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 60 ML, Pendaftar: Sampharindo Perdana-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Coklat 60 ML, Pendaftar: Sanbe Farma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Coklat 100 ML, Pendaftar Sanbe Farma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Sandai Farma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 100 ML, Pendaftar: Sandai Farma-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Sandoz Indonesia-Indonesia
Seletorfan, Kemasan: Dus, Botol Plastik 100 Tablet, Pendaftar: Sejahtera Lestari Farma
Seletorfan, Kemasan: Botol 1000 Tablet, PEndaftar: Sejahtera Lestari Farma
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Tempo Scan Pacifik Tbk-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 1000 Tablet, Pendaftar: Triman-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Strip @ 10 Tablet, Pendaftar: Triman-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 60 ML, Pendaftar: Tropica Mas-Indonesia
Tropibat, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Tropica Mas-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, Botol 60 ML, Pendaftar: Yanthi Utama Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, Botol Plastik @ 60 ML, Pendaftar: Yarindo Farmatama-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Strip @ 10 Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: yarindo Farmatama-Indonesia
Dextromethorphan, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 1000
Tablet Salut Selaput, Pendaftar: yarindo Farmatama-Indonesia
Yekadex, Kemasan: Botol Plastik 1000 Tablet, Pendaftar: Yekatria Farma-Indonesia
Yekadex, Kemasan: Dus, 20 Catch Cover @ 4 Tablet, Pendaftar: Yekatria Farma-Indonesia
Dexitab, Kemasan: Botol Kaca 400 Tablet, Pendaftar: Zenit Parmaceutical – Indonesia
Dexitab, Kemasan: Dus, 10 Strip @ 10 Tablet, Pendaftar: Zenith Parmaceutical – Indonesia
Zenidex, Kemasan: Botol 15 ML, Pendaftar: Zenith Parmaceutical-Indonesia
Zenidex, Kemasan: Botol 100 ML, Pendaftar: Zenith Parmaceutical-Indonesia
Zenidex, Kemasan: Botol 60 ML, Zenith Parmaceutical-Indonesia

Credits: Melly Febrida
– See more at: http://m.liputan6.com/health/read/2055726/daftar-130-obat-batuk-yang-akan-ditarik-per-akhir-juni#sthash.Cgy6k9QB.dpuf
Bisnis.com, JAKARTA – Badan Pengawasan Obat dan Makanan (BPOM) akan menarik obat batuk dekstrometorfan di Indonesia dan diberi batas waktu sampai 30 Juni 2014.

Dekstrometorfan selama ini dipakai untuk obat penghilang batuk, dan dijual bebas. Obat ini bila dipakai secara kombinasi dengan bahan obat lain, tidak jadi masalah.

Namun, kalau dikonsumsi secara tunggal dan berlebihan, bisa membahayakan orang yang meminumnya, bahkan berakibat pada kematian.

“Berdasarkan efek farmakologisnya, dekstrometorfan merupakan antitusif yang bekerja dengan meningkatkan ambang rangsang reflek batuk di susunan saraf pusat,” kata Antonia Retno Tyas Utami, Apt, Deputi Bidang Pengawasan Produk Terapetik dan Napza BPOM, di Jakarta, Selasa (1/10/2013).

Dia menjelaskan dekstrometorfan (d-3-metoksi-N-metilmorfinan), merupakan isomer d-levometorphan. Zat ini tidak memiliki sifat analgetik atau adiktif, dan tidak bekerja pada resptor opidoid.

“Toksisitas zat ini sangat rendah, tapi dosis yang sangat tinggi dapat menimbullkan depresi sistem syaraf pusat. Efek ini yang banyak disalahgunakan oleh pengguna,” ungkapnya

Jadi, katanya, karena selama ini banyak terjadi penyalahgunaan pemakaian dekstrometorfan, maka banyak negara mulai mempertimbangkan pengawasannya lebih ketat.

Menurut pantauan BPOM, ujarnya, obat ini mudah didapat di warung-warung daerah pinggiran, dijual murah dengan harga RP100 per tablet. Bila meminumnya berlebihan, bisa membuat seseorang menjadi berhalusinasi, hilang koordinasi motoriknya, dan dissosiatif sedatif.

“Tren di masyarakat desa dan pinggiran akhir-akhir ini, para remaja banyak meminum obat jenis ini untuk mendapatkan efek seperti narkoba. Kalau dibiarkan terus menerus, bisa membahayakan anak tersebut, dan berakibat pada kematian,” ungkap Retno.

Dia mengatakan ada 130 izin edar yang sudah dikeluarkan BPOM untuk produksi obat dekstrometorfin ini, dan produsennya sebanyak 52 perusahaan.

“Kami sudah memberitahukan kepada seluruh produsen obat dekstrometorfan, untuk mulai menariknya dari peredaran. BPOM memberi batas waktu akhir sampai 30 Juni 2014,” ungkapnya lagi.

Editor : Sepudin Zuhri

If you’re raising a teenager and you don’t know much about DXM or cough medicine abuse, you’re hardly alone. DXM, or dextromethorphan, is a common ingredient in cough and combination cold medicines. Teens, however, have found another use for cough medicine — getting high. Taking huge doses of cough medicine to get high may sound revolting. In fact, you might assume it’s just an obscure fringe thing.

But it’s not. A 2008 study found that one in 10 American teenagers has abused products with DXM to get high, making it more popular in that age group than cocaine, ecstasy, LSD, and meth. Although DXM products are quite safe when taken as recommended, high doses can cause hallucinogenic trips — and pose serious risks.

DXM is in almost half of all of the OTC drugs sold in the U.S. For teens experimenting with drugs, DXM is cheap, easy to get, and legal.

Surprised? Many parents are.

“A lot of parents just have no idea,” says Deborah Levine MD, clinical assistant professor of pediatrics and emergency medicine at NYU Langone Medical Center. “Alarms would sound if they ever found an empty beer can in a teenager’s car, but they wouldn’t think twice about an empty bottle of cough syrup or used-up package of tablets.”

As a conscientious parent, you may occasionally check the bottles in the liquor cabinet, or sniff for the scent of pot. It’s time to also pay attention to what’s in your medicine cabinet. Here’s what parents need to know about DXM abuse.

Understanding DXM Abuse

DXM – or dextromethorphan – was introduced in the U.S. in the 1950s, and is the most commonly used cough suppressant in the U.S. DXM is now in more than 125 drugs for cough, cold, and flu, including many household names such as Dimetapp DM, Nyquil, Robitussin, Coricidin, Delsym, Zicam, Theraflu, and Vick’s Formula 44. It’s also used in store brands of cough and cold medicines, such as Wal-Tussin or Wal-Flu sold at Walgreen’s. It’s used in cough syrups, capsules, lozenges, tablets, and gelcaps.

At normal doses, DXM is quite safe. Dextromethorphan affects the brain, specifically the region that controls coughing. However, at high doses – as much as 10 to 50 times the suggested amount – DXM can cause hallucinatory and dissociative effects similar to those of PCP or ketamine (special K.) Some people assume that teens who abuse cough medicine are after the alcohol content, but they’re really after DXM.

Although DXM abuse is not new, the scope has been changing. In California, rates of DXM cases reported to poison control centers jumped by 10 times between 1999-2004. Among children aged 9-17, it increased by 15 times. More recent national surveys have shown DXM abuse holding steady or dropping slightly, but it remains a serious problem.

DXM Abuse: Why Is It Popular?

Why are teens turning to DXM abuse? Experts say there are a number of reasons.

  • DXM is easy to get. The sheer number of products that contain DXM makes it tempting. If you don’t have at least one in your medicine cabinet right now, your neighbor does. Some of the most commonly abused drugs are not cough syrups – which are hard to keep down – but higher-dose tablets, such as Coricidin and store brands such as Walgreen’s Flu BP. “It’s much easier to take in high doses than cough syrup,” Levine tells WebMD.
  • DXM is cheap. Compared to buying illicit drugs from a dealer, getting a bottle of cough syrup or a packet of tablets is a bargain. DXM is a habit that’s easy to support with babysitting money. And for kids sneaking their DXM from home — or shoplifting — it’s free.
  • Cough medicine seems safer. Many teens try DXM because they assume — incorrectly — that even at high doses it still must be safer than illicit drugs. Although they might be uneasy about what they’d get from a shady dealer on a street corner, they’re comfortable trying a legal, brand name medicine they got in a brightly-lit drugstore. And because the medicine is legal, they can carry it with them, or use it on the street. “It’s a kind of sick consumer savvy,” says Hallie Deaktor, director of public affairs at the Partnership for a Drug-Free America in New York City. Unfortunately, Deaktor often sees that misconception about DXM abuse reflected in parents too. “I talk to some parents, and they tell me how relieved they are that their kids are abusing cough syrup instead of illegal drugs,” says Deaktor. “They have no idea how serious the risks are.”
  •  DXM is popular. A whole subculture has risen up around DXM abuse. There’s a specialized jargon for its use, like robo-tripping, sheeting, dexing, and skittling. There are many more terms for the drug itself: CCCs, dex, red devils, robo, skittles, tussin, syrup, and velvet. On the Internet, there are lengthy guides outlining DXM abuse, with detailed tips about the pros and cons of different brands and formulations.
  • Their parents don’t know. According to surveys, even among parents who diligently have the “drug talk” with their kids, fewer than one in five think to mention DXM abuse. “I talk to a lot of parents who just don’t get it,” says Deaktor. “Many just can’t get their brains around the idea that anyone would want to drink a whole bottle of cough syrup. It just seems too disgusting.” (After all, this is the same medicine that parents had to beg their kids to take when they were sick.)

DXM Abuse: Why Is It Popular? continued…

For the most part, cough medicine abuse seems to be popular among teens and sometimes younger kids, Levine says. After they graduate high school, illicit drugs are more easily available, especially on college campuses. “By the time they’re young adults, they tend to look at using cough medicine as beneath them,” says Levine.

Another type of danger is posed by the sale of so-called “pure DXM,” the raw ingredient used by pharmaceutical companies to manufacture drugs. Pure DXM is sometimes sold in bulk over the Internet — often from outside the U.S. — and then resold in smaller doses by dealers. For teens who are used to low doses of DXM in OTC products, raw DXM can pose a much higher risk of overdose.

DXM Abuse: What Are the Risks?

The risks of DXM abuse are real. At high doses, DXM can cause:

  • Impaired vision
  • Sweating and fever
  • Rapid breathing
  • Increased and irregular heart rate and blood pressure
  • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
  • Slurred speech
  • Impaired judgment and mental function
  • Memory loss
  • Rapid eye movements
  • Hallucinations and dissociative effects
  • Coma

In 2004, the most recent data available, abuse of DXM sent more than 5,500 people to the emergency room, including children as young as 12. Although uncommon, DXM has also played a role — directly or indirectly — in a number of deaths. High amounts of DXM have the potential to be very dangerous, or even fatal when taken alongside other medicines or illicit drugs.

How Is DXM Abuse Harming Teens?

  •  Overdoses. There have been several fatal overdoses associated with pure DXM powder, which is sometimes sold on the Internet. High amounts can shut down the central nervous system. There’s another sort of overdose risk, too. Combination cold and flu drugs often contain a number of other active ingredients – other cough suppressants, decongestants, antihistamines, and painkillers. When taken at high doses, these other drugs – like the pain killer acetaminophen – can be quite toxic. They can cause liver damage, heart attack, stroke, and death.
  • Impairment. One serious risk of DXM abuse is that people will injure themselves while high, says Levine. The altered consciousness, impaired vision, and hallucinations can lead to irrational and dangerous behavior. For example, in 2003, a 14-year-old Colorado boy who was high on DXM was killed while trying to cross a highway.
  • Combined effects with other substances. According to studies, abusing OTC medicines is associated with a higher risk of abusing alcohol or illicit drugs. DXM is often a gateway drug, says James E. Lessenger, MD, who has studied OTC medicine abuse in California. Once kids get comfortable with it, they move on to illegal drugs, he says. Unsurprisingly, in all of the emergency room visits related to non-medical DXM use, more than a third of the people had also been drinking. Compounding the effects of DXM with other substances increases the risks. For instance, when DXM is taken with ecstasy, the risk of potentially fatal overheating is possible.

What should you do if you find your child high on DXM? Levine says that it will typically pass on its own, and you can usually wait it out. But you need to get emergency medical attention if your child:

  • Is unresponsive to your voice
  • Is vomiting
  • Is sweating excessively
  • Has a pale or bluish tinge to the skin
  • Has an excessively fast, slow, or irregular pulse

If other symptoms are worrying you, err on the side of caution and get medical help right away, Levine says.

What Can Parents Do About DXM Abuse?

Although the subject of teen DXM abuse is grim, there is some good news. Recent surveys have shown that the number of teens abusing DXM seems to have stopped growing and leveled off. In a 2008 survey, the percentage of teens who said they saw cough medicine abuse as risky increased by over 6% in just one year. Some experts think that the message about DXM’s dangers is getting through.

The issue of DXM abuse has also been getting some political attention. A bill currently before Congress would outlaw the sale of raw DXM to individuals. Of course, this wouldn’t have any impact on kids who are getting their DXM in drugstores. Some advocacy groups have proposed further restrictions to tackle that problem, like age limits on the sale of products with DXM. Meanwhile, some stores have decided on their own to impose age restrictions or to keep DXM products behind the counter to discourage abuse and shoplifting.

As a parent, you can’t expect outside forces to resolve this problem. You have to take action. So what should you do?

Start by cleaning out your medicine cabinet and keeping an eye on how much medicine is in each bottle or package. Keep prescription and OTC medicines such as cough medicine away from your children’s reach and sight. Some parents decide to lock up their medicine cabinets like they do their liquor cabinets. But the most important thing is to talk with your kids.

“The best thing is education,” says Levine. “It’s so much better for kids to learn about the risks of drug abuse from a parent than from a peer. So look your kids in the eye and tell them that abusing drugs like DXM can have terrible risks, no matter what their friends are doing.” Stress that although OTC medications can have real benefits, they can have serious risks when not used as recommended.

Although it’s disturbing to know that 10% of teens have abused DXM, but keep in mind that 90% of teens haven’t. By talking about the risks of DXM abuse with your teens, you can help them stay in that healthy majority.

 

REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, CILACAP — Penyalahgunaan obat di kalangan remaja sungguh memprihatinkan.

Di Kabupaten Cilacap, dua siswa SMP warga Desa Tambaksari, Kecamatan Kedungreja, tewas akibat overdosis setelah mencoba ‘fly’ dengan menggunakan obat Dextromethorpan. Sedangkan dua orang lainnya, masih bisa diselamatkan dan dalam perawatan.

Dua remaja yang meninggal itu bernama Kriswanto (13) dan Rahmanto (14). Sedangkan dua remaja lain yang dirawat adalah Frengki (14) dan Torik (16).

”Kedua remaja yang berhasil diselamatkan tersebut, kini dirawat di Puskesmas Kecamatan Sidareja,” jelas Kesubag Humas Polres Cilacap AKP Siti Khayati, Rabu (28/11).

Berdasarkan keterangan yang diproleh pihak kepolisian, keempat remaja tersebut mengonsumsi obat yang sebenarnya merupakan obat batuk tersebut, di rumah Torik di Desa Tambaksari, Senin (26/11) malam. Saat itu, orang tua Thorik sudah tidur semua.

”Saat itu, Kriswanto mengonsumsi pil dextro sebanyak 18 butir, Rahmanto 30 butir, Frengki 20 butir, dan Torik mengonsumsi hingga 40 Butir,” jelasnya.

Hingga padi hari, tidak ada penghuni rumah Thorik tersebut, yang tahu apa yang dilakukan Thorik dan ketiga kawan-kawannya. Orang tua Thorik, baru tahu bahwa keempatnya telah bermabuk-mabukkan semalam suntuk, pada Selasa (28/11) pagi.

Oleh orang tua Thorik dan warga setempat, keempat remaja yang sudah dalam kondisi diam tak bergerak tersebut langsung dilarikan ke Puskesmas Sidareja. Sementara warga lainnya, melaporkan kejadian tersebut ke Polsek Kedungreja. Namun petugas medis puskesmas setempat, memastikan bahwa sebelum dibawa ke puskesmas, Kriswanto dan Rahmanto, sudah meninggal dunia.

Terkait kejadia ini, Siti Khayati mengatakan Polres Cilacap akan menggelar sosialisasi kepada masyarakat untuk tidak mengonsumsi obat secara berlebihan. Terlebih obat jenis dextromethorpan.

Pil dextro, atau dextromethorphan atau yang biasa disingkat dengan nama DMP, adalah merupakan bahan aktif obat batuk yang memang dapat dibeli secara bebas tanpa resep di apotik atau toko obat.

Bila dikonsumsi dalam dosis yang sesuai, pil DMP bermanfaat untuk menekan batuk dan penurun demam. Cara kerja obat ini, adalah dengan menaikan ambang batas rangsang batuk di bagian otak, bukan bekerja pada saluran pernapasan seperti beberapa jenis obat lainnya.

Efek overdosis dextromethorphan, dengan kadar konsumsi 200-400 mg akan menyebabkan euforia dan halusinasi. Konsumsi 300-600mg, akan ditambah dengan gangguan penglihatan dan hilangnya koordinasi gerak tubuh. Sedangkan mengonsumsi 500-1500mg, akan muncul perasaan bahwa jiwa dan raga seolah-olah terpisah.

Siti Khayati mengaku, di kalangan remaja Cilacap, saat ini memang ada gejala penyalahgunaan obat batuk itu untuk bermabuk-mabukkan. ”Untuk itu, kita akan menggelar sosialisasi ke apotik-apotik dan toko obat agar mengendalikan penjualan obat jenis itu,” katanya.

 

Juni 3, 2014

beautiful: happy planet @INDONESIA … 030614

Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY — bumi2009fans @ 12:56 am

TEMPO.CO, Jakarta – Berbeda dengan pendapat umum yang menyatakan bahwa tinggal di desa jauh lebih tenang dan bahagia daripada di kota besar, survei Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) tentang indeks kebahagiaan berkata sebaliknya. Penduduk kota ternyata lebih bahagia dari penduduk desa.

Dari 9.720 rumah tangga yang disurvei BPS pada 2013, didapati individu yang tinggal di perkotaan indeks kebahagiaannya mencapai 65,92 pada skala 0-100 dengan 100 adalah kondisi paling bahagia. “Adapun penduduk desa indeks kebahagiaannya adalah 64,32,” seperti dikutip dari siaran pers BPS, Selasa, 3 Juni 2014. (Baca: Ini Tuntutan Petani untuk Capres Terpilih)

Sampel rumah tangga yang disurvei bersifat proporsional yang dipilih secara acak dan tersebar di seluruh provinsi. Sebanyak 49,97 persen responden adalah warga perkotaan, sementara sisanya 50,03 persen adalah masyarakat pedesaan.

Hasil studi ini dikeluarkan BPS untuk mengukur tingkat kebahagiaan masyarakat Indonesia. Secara rata-rata, maka tingkat kebahagiaan orang Indonesia adalah 65,11 pada skala 0-100. (Baca: Survei BPS: Orang Indonesia Ternyata Cukup Bahagia)

Indeks kebahagiaan ialah suatu ukuran evaluasi kehidupan secara keseluruhan maupun menurut domain kehidupan tertentu yang esensial. Secara teori, konsep kebahagiaan memiliki makna yang mencakup pada kondisi kehidupan yang menyenangkan, kehidupan yang baik, dan juga kehidupan yang bermakna.

Adapun kesepuluh domain yang secara substansi dan bersama-sama merefleksikan tingkat kebahagiaan individu meliputi: pekerjaan, pendapatan rumah tangga, kondisi rumah dan aset. Selain itu beberapa domain lainnya adalah: pendidikan, kesehatan, keharmonisan keluarga, hubungan sosial, ketersediaan waktu luang, kondisi lingkungan dan kondisi keamanan.

INDRI MAULIDAR

TEMPO.CO, Jakarta – Indeks Kebahagiaan Masyarakat Indonesia menunjukkan bahwa orang Indonesia yang bersekolah hingga Strata 2 dan Strata 3 ternyata jauh lebih bahagia daripada yang hanya tamatan SMA, apalagi dengan yang tidak pernah bersekolah.

Dalam hasil survei yang dilakukan oleh Badan Pusat Statistik itu, disebutkan indeks kebahagiaan tertinggi ditunjukkan lulusan S2 dan S3 yaitu sebesar 75,58 persen dari skala 0-100. Adapun angka 100 merupakan indeks bahagia paling tinggi. Sebaliknya, indeks yang makin kecil hingga ke angka 0 menggambarkan individu yang sangat tak bahagia.

“Penduduk dengan pendidikan tak lulus SD, indeks kebahagiaannya di bawah 62,” seperti dikutip dari siaran pers BPS, Senin, 2 Juni 2014. (Baca: Survei BPS: Orang Indonesia Ternyata Cukup Bahagia)

Survei terhadap 9.270 responden yang dipilih secara acak dari seluruh provinsi ini dilakukan sepanjang tahun 2013. Adapun jumlah responden yang diwawancara seimbang antara wilayah perkotaan dan perdesaan dengan jumlah responden perempuan sedikit lebih banyak (53 persen) ketimbang laki-laki. (Baca: Impor Ponsel Picu Defisit Neraca Perdagangan)

Sementara itu, indeks kebahagiaan lulusan S1 berada sedikit di bawah lulusan S2 dan S3 yaitu sebesar 72,68. Adapun indeks kebahagiaan lulusan SMA berada pada angka 67,63. Sedangkan lulusan SMP dan SD masing-masing indeks kebahagiaannya adalah 65,56 dan 63,93.

Masih pada survei yang sama, BPS juga mengukur indeks kebahagiaan berdasarkan penghasilan bulanan. Rumah tangga dengan penghasilan lebih Rp 7,2 juta per bulan, indeks kebahagiannya berada pada angka 74,64, dengan skala 0-100. Sementara penghasilan paling rendah, yaitu di bawah Rp 1,8 juta per bulan, indeks kebahagiaannya berada pada angka 61,80.

INDRI MAULIDAR

20 Negara Paling Bahagia di Dunia, Indonesia Peringkat 14
5 October 2012 01:16

Newswire

Anda pasti ingin pergi ke tempat paling bahagia di dunia. Berdasarkan daftar yang didapat dari Happy Planet Index, Indonesia masuk ke dalam jajaran negara yang paling bahagia dan menduduki peringkat ke-14. Happy Planet Index adalah sebuah organisasi yang mengukur kesejahteraan sebuah negara dan rata-rata usia penduduk yang tinggal di dalamnya yang berbasis di London.

Selain mengukur rata-rata usia dan kebahagiaan penduduknya, Happy Planet Index juga mempertimbangkan kelestarian lingkungan negara tersebut sebagai bahan pertimbangan. Dari 151 negara yang ada di daftar tersebut, Costa Rica menjadi negara paling bahagia dan merajai daftar dengan rata-rata usia penduduknya berusia 64 tahun.

Negara besar seperti Inggris berada di urutan ke-41 sementara Amerika Serikat di urutan ke-105. Negara paling sedih di dunia adalah Botswana di peringkat 151 dengan tingkat kebahagiaan yang rendah dan rata-rata usia 22 tahun.

Berikut adalah daftar 20 negara paling bahagia di dunia:

1. Costa Rica (64.0)

2. Vietnam (60.4)

3. Colombia (59.8)

4. Belize (59.3)

5. El Salvador (58.9)

6. Jamaica (58.5)

7. Panama (57.8)

8. Nicaragua (57.1)

9. Venezuela (56.9)

9. Guatemala (56.9)

11. Bangladesh (56.3)

12. Cuba (56.2)

13. Honduras (56.0)

14. Indonesia (55.5)

15. Israel (55.2)

16. Pakistan (54.1)

16. Argentina (54.1)

16. Albania (54.1)

19. Chile (53.9)

20. Thailand (53.5)

(CNN/ms)

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