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Desember 27, 2012

beautiful: psikotik @NEWTOWN … 271212

Filed under: Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 1:13 am

Our Failed Approach to Schizophrenia
Published: December 25, 2012


TOO many pendulums have swung in the wrong directions in the United States. I am not referring only to the bizarre all-or-nothing rhetoric around gun control, but to the swing in mental health care over the past 50 years: too little institutionalizing of teenagers and young adults (particularly men, generally more prone to violence) who have had a recent onset of schizophrenia; too little education about the public health impact of untreated mental illness; too few psychiatrists to talk about and treat severe mental disorders — even though the medications available in the past 15 to 20 years can be remarkably effective.

Instead we have too much concern about privacy, labeling and stereotyping, about the civil liberties of people who have horrifically distorted thinking. In our concern for the rights of people with mental illness, we have come to neglect the rights of ordinary Americans to be safe from the fear of being shot — at home and at schools, in movie theaters, houses of worship and shopping malls.

“Psychosis” — a loss of touch with reality — is an umbrella term, not unlike “fever.” As with fevers, there are many causes, from drugs and alcohol to head injuries and dementias. The most common source of severe psychosis in young adults is schizophrenia, a badly named disorder that, in the original Greek, means “split mind.” In fact, schizophrenia has nothing to do with multiple personality, a disorder that is usually caused by major repeated traumas in childhood. Schizophrenia is a physiological disorder caused by changes in the prefrontal cortex, an area of the brain that is essential for language, abstract thinking and appropriate social behavior. This highly evolved brain area is weakened by stress, as often occurs in adolescence.

Psychiatrists and neurobiologists have observed biochemical changes and alterations in brain connections in patients with schizophrenia. For example, miscommunications between the prefrontal cortex and the language area in the temporal cortex may result in auditory hallucinations, as well as disorganized thoughts. When the voices become commands, all bets are off. The commands might insist, for example, that a person jump out of a window, even if he has no intention of dying, or grab a set of guns and kill people, without any sense that he is wreaking havoc. Additional symptoms include other distorted thinking, like the notion that something — even a spaceship, or a comic book character — is controlling one’s thoughts and actions.

Schizophrenia generally rears its head between the ages of 15 and 24, with a slightly later age for females. Early signs may include being a quirky loner — often mistaken for Asperger’s syndrome — but acute signs and symptoms do not appear until adolescence or young adulthood.

People with schizophrenia are unaware of how strange their thinking is and do not seek out treatment. At Virginia Tech, where Seung-Hui Cho killed 32 people in a rampage shooting in 2007, professors knew something was terribly wrong, but he was not hospitalized for long enough to get well. The parents and community-college classmates of Jared L. Loughner, who killed 6 people and shot and injured 13 others (including a member of Congress) in 2011, did not know where to turn. We may never know with certainty what demons tormented Adam Lanza, who slaughtered 26 people at an elementary school in Newtown, Conn., on Dec. 14, though his acts strongly suggest undiagnosed schizophrenia.

I write this despite the so-called Goldwater Rule, an ethical standard the American Psychiatric Association adopted in the 1970s that directs psychiatrists not to comment on someone’s mental state if they have not examined him and gotten permission to discuss his case. It has had a chilling effect. After mass murders, our airwaves are filled with unfounded speculations about video games, our culture of hedonism and our loss of religious faith, while psychiatrists, the ones who know the most about severe mental illness, are largely marginalized.

Severely ill people like Mr. Lanza fall through the cracks, in part because school counselors are more familiar with anxiety and depression than with psychosis. Hospitalizations for acute onset of schizophrenia have been shortened to the point of absurdity. Insurance companies and families try to get patients out of hospitals as quickly as possible because of the prohibitively high cost of care.

As documented by writers like the law professor Elyn R. Saks, author of the memoir “The Center Cannot Hold: My Journey Through Madness,” medication and treatment work. The vast majority of people with schizophrenia, treated or untreated, are not violent, though they are more likely than others to commit violent crimes. When treated with medication after a rampage, many perpetrators who have shown signs of schizophrenia — including John Lennon’s killer and Ronald Reagan’s would-be assassin — have recognized the heinousness of their actions and expressed deep remorse.

It takes a village to stop a rampage. We need reasonable controls on semiautomatic weapons; criminal penalties for those who sell weapons to people with clear signs of psychosis; greater insurance coverage and capacity at private and public hospitals for lengthier care for patients with schizophrenia; intense public education about how to deal with schizophrenia; greater willingness to seek involuntary commitment of those who pose a threat to themselves or others; and greater incentives for psychiatrists (and other mental health professionals) to treat the disorder, rather than less dangerous conditions.

Too many people with acute schizophrenia have gone untreated. There have been too many Glocks, too many kids and adults cut down in their prime. Enough already.

Paul Steinberg is a psychiatrist in private practice.


Desember 21, 2012

beautiful: emaaa($1645)aa$ … 21″doomsday of MAYAN”Dec2012

Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 2:00 am

Emas Merosot ke Level Terendah 4 Bulan Terakhir
Jumat, 21 Desember 2012 | 07:52 WIB

NEW YORK, KOMPAS.com – Harga kontrak emas pada perdagangan Kamis (20/12/2012) waktu setempat merosot ke level terendah sejak Agustus lalu. Data Bloomberg menunjukkan, pada pukul 13.56 waktu New York, harga kontrak emas untuk pengantaran Februari terpangkas 1,3 persen menjadi 1.645,90 dollar AS per troy ounce di Comex, New York.

Pada transaksi sebelumnya, kontrak yang sama sempat menyentuh 1.636 dollar AS, level terendah sejak 21 Agustus. Sepanjang tahun ini, harga emas sudah naik 5 persen.

Penurunan harga emas terjadi setelah data menunjukkan pertumbuhan ekonomi mencatatkan pertumbuhan yang lebih besar ketimbang prediksi pada kuartal lalu. Kondisi ini meredakan ekspektasi bahwa the Federal Reserve akan meningkatkan kebijakan stimulus moneternya.

“Data PDB lebih baik dari prediksi. Sehingga, pemikiran bahwa pemulihan ekonomi akan mengakhiri program quantitative easing yang dilakukan the Fed,” jelas Phil Streible, senior commodity broker RJ O’Brien & Associates di Chicago.

Catatan saja, pertumbuhan ekonomi AS (PDB) naik 3,1 persen pada kuartal III lalu. Angka ini lebih tinggi ketimbang prediksi analis. (Barratut Taqiyyah/Kontan)

Desember 10, 2012

beautiful: BULAN lahir, BULAN jenis pekerjaan … 101212

Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY — bumi2009fans @ 5:30 am

bulan lahir bulan jenis kerja
Studi: Bulan Kelahiran Bayi Bisa Tentukan Pekerjaannya Saat Dewasa
Putro Agus Harnowo – detikHealth
Senin, 10/12/2012 10:57 WIB

Jakarta, Tentu orang sudah banyak tahu tentang zodiak atau penentuan sifat seseorang berdasarkan bulan kelahiran. Ramalan zodiak seringkali dibaca hanya untuk seru-seruan saja. Walau demikian, ternyata penelitian menemukan bahwa bulan kelahiran bayi juga berkaitan dengan pilihan kariernya di kemudian hari.

Sebuah penelitian yang dilakukan lembaga statistik milik pemerintah Inggris atau Office for National Statistics menemukan bahwa bulan kelahiran seseorang berkaitan dengan jenis pekerjaan tertentu. Tak hanya itu, bulan kelahiran juga ternyata mempengaruhi kecerdasan bayi.

Untuk mencapai kesimpulan ini, para peneliti menganalisis bulan kelahiran yang ditemukan dalam data statistik warga Inggris lalu mengkategorikannya dalam 19 jenis pekerjaan berbeda. Ternyata ditemukan korelasi antara bulan kelahiran dengan masalah kesehatan tertentu.

Efeknya kecil, tetapi sangat jelas. Saya tidak mendukung astrologi, tetapi kita tidak kebal dari gangguan musiman,” kata Russell Foster, neuroscientist dari Universitas Oxford seperti dilansir Telegraph, Senin (10/12/2012).

Penelitian tersebut menemukan bahwa anak yang lahir di bulan Desember lebih mungkin menjadi dokter gigi, sedangkan orang yang berulang tahun di bulan Januari cenderung bekerja sebagai penagih utang.

Orang yang dilahirkan pada bulan Februari lebih besar kemungkinannya memiliki profesi sebagai seorang seniman, sementara bayi yang lahir di bulan Maret tampaknya cenderung tumbuh menjadi pilot

… bulan MAYbe YES, MAYbe NO 😛 …
Orang kelahiran bulan April dan Mei lebih sulit ditentukan karena profesinya ditemukan sangat beragam dan tersebar.

Bayi yang dilahirkan pada musim panas artinya lebih sedikit memiliki kesempatan tumbuh menjadi pemain sepak bola berpenghasilan tinggi, dokter ataupun dokter gigi.

Foster menegaskan bahwa cukup beralasan jika bulan kelahiran dapat mempengaruhi angka harapan hidup, tinggi badan, prestasi akademis, kecenderungan jam biologis, kecenderungan penyakit hingga indeks massa tubuhnya saat dewasa.

Bayi yang dilahirkan pada musim semi memiliki risiko lebih besar terkena penyakit seperti skizofrenia, asma, Alzheimer dan autisme. Bayi-bayi ini juga mungkin tumbuh kurang pandai daripada temannya yang lahir di bulan lainnya.

Penelitian lain telah menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan tersebut berkaitan dengan paparan sinar matahari saat kehamilan ibu. Sinar matahari memicu produksi vitamin D dalam tubuh. Kekurangan vitamin ini dalam beberapa bulan pertama kehidupan dapat memiliki efek jangka panjang.


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