eK0n0mi taK seriU$ d/h ekonomitakserius@blogspot.com

Mei 31, 2012

beautiful: obat kanker yang NYAMAN … 010612

Filed under: Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 11:45 pm

May 31, 2012
A New Class of Cancer Drugs May Be Less Toxic
Fern Saitowitz’s advanced breast cancer was controlled for about a year by the drug Herceptin and a toxic chemotherapy agent. But her hair fell out, her fingernails turned black and she was constantly fatigued.

She switched to an experimental treatment, which also consisted of Herceptin and a chemotherapy agent. Only this time, the two drugs were attached to each other, keeping the toxic agent inactive until the Herceptin carried it to the tumor. Side effects, other than temporary nausea and some muscle cramps, vanished.

“I’m able to live a normal life,” said Ms. Saitowitz, 47, a mother of two young children in Los Angeles. “I haven’t lost any of my hair.”

The experimental treatment, called T-DM1, is a harbinger of a new class of cancer drugs that may be more effective and less toxic than many existing treatments. By harnessing antibodies to deliver toxic payloads to cancer cells, while largely sparing healthy cells, the drugs are a step toward the “magic bullets” against cancer first envisioned by Paul Ehrlich, a German Nobel laureate, about 100 years ago.

“It’s almost like we’re masking the chemotherapy,” said Dr. Edith Perez, a breast cancer specialist at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Fla.

One such drug, Adcetris, developed by Seattle Genetics, was approved last August to treat Hodgkin’s lymphoma and another rare cancer. TDM-1, developed by Genentech, could reach the market next year. Data from a large clinical trial of T-DM1 is expected to attract attention at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology this weekend in Chicago.

Numerous other companies, from pharmaceutical giants to tiny start-ups, are pursuing the treatments, which are known variously as antibody-drug conjugates, armed antibodies or empowered antibodies. “I don’t think there is a major pharma or a midsized pharma with interest in cancer that doesn’t have a program or isn’t scrambling to put one together,” said Stephen Evans-Freke, a managing general partner at Celtic Therapeutics, an investment firm that recently committed $50 million to create a new company, ADC Therapeutics, to develop antibody-drug conjugates.

About 25 such drugs from a variety of companies are in clinical trials, according to Alain Beck, a French pharmaceutical researcher who closely tracks the field. Genentech alone has eight in clinical trials besides T-DM1, and another 17 in earlier stages of development.

Many of the drugs use technology from either Seattle Genetics, based in Bothell, Wash., or ImmunoGen of Waltham, Mass., which supplied the toxin and linker used in T-DM1.

The armed antibodies do not work for all patients and they are not totally free of side effects. T-DM1, for instance, can lower blood platelet levels. The drugs are also likely to be expensive. Adcetris costs more than $100,000 for a typical course of treatment.

Biotechnology drugs called monoclonal antibodies, like Herceptin, Rituxan and Erbitux, are already mainstays of what is called targeted cancer therapy. These laboratory-produced molecules mimic the antibodies made by a person’s immune system to fight infection. But instead of attacking pathogens these antibodies attach to specific proteins on the surface of cancer cells. are monoclonal antibodies, laboratory-produced molecules that are carefully engineered to attach to specific proteins on the surface of cancer cells.

But antibodies by themselves have a limited ability to kill tumors. So the antibodies are usually given with more conventional cell-killing chemotherapy drugs, which cause side effects because they can also attack healthy cells.

The new approach chemically attaches a toxin to the antibody, increasing its killing power while reducing the need to give toxic drugs separately. After the antibody binds to a cancer cell, it is taken inside the cell like a Trojan horse, and the toxin is released.

While armed antibodies are sometimes likened to guided missiles with toxic warheads, they actually cannot guide themselves to tumors.

Rather, they float through the bloodstream, bumping against various cells. But they stick only to the cells bearing the target protein.

“These are like floating sea mines,” said K. Dane Wittrup, a professor of chemical and biological engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. “But when they end up in a particular harbor, they blow up.” Less than 1 percent of the drug actually makes it to the tumor, he estimated.

The antibody used in Adcetris, which binds to a protein on malignant cells called CD30, had little effect on cancer when tested alone, even at doses 20 times as high as used now. But when linked to a toxin, it shrank tumors in 75 percent of those with Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Aimee Blaine, a petroleum engineer from Bakersfield, Calif., who has had Hodgkin’s lymphoma since 2004, was virtually out of options after traditional chemotherapy and a stem cell transplant failed to cure her disease.

But four days after taking Adcetris in a clinical trial, the unbearable itching that accompanied her disease vanished, she said.

Eventually, so did the cancer. Ms. Blaine, 40, has been in remission since her last dose in January 2011 and recently returned to work for the first time in seven years.

Like Herceptin, T-DM1 binds to what is known as the HER2 protein and is meant to treat only the roughly 20 percent of breast cancer cases characterized by an abundance of that protein.

In one trial involving 137 women, including Ms. Saitowitz, T-DM1 proved both more effective and less toxic than a combination of Herceptin and the chemotherapy drug docetaxel as an initial treatment for metastatic breast cancer.

Those who received T-DM1 went a median of 14.2 months before their disease worsened, compared with 9.2 months for those getting the two-drug combination. Yet only 46 percent of the T-DM1 patients suffered a severe side effect, half the rate of the other group.

At the cancer conference, researchers will present results of a pivotal trial involving nearly 1,000 women. Though armed antibodies are easy to envision, it has taken more than three decades to make them practical, with many failures along the way.

With the first armed antibody to reach the market, Mylotarg, the toxin sometimes fell off the antibody prematurely, causing side effects. Approved in 2000 to treat acute myeloid leukemia, Mylotarg was removed from the market by its manufacturer, Pfizer, in 2010 after new studies showed it did not prolong lives and had safety problems.

Since then, two antibodies linked to radioactive isotopes have been approved to treat non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma — Bexxar from GlaxoSmithKline and Zevalin from Spectrum Pharmaceuticals. These drugs, while effective, are more cumbersome to use than antibodies linked to chemical toxins.

Researchers first tried to use existing chemotherapy drugs as the payloads, but they were simply not toxic enough. That is because less of a drug gets to the tumor when carried on an antibody than when the drug floods the body by itself.

Seattle Genetics and ImmunoGen use toxins that are hundreds of times as potent as typical chemotherapy agents. They are too toxic to be given by themselves.

The linkers have proved even tricker to develop since they must keep the toxin attached to the antibody while in the bloodstream, but then release the toxin inside the cancer cell.

Dr. John Lambert, executive vice president for research and development at ImmunoGen, will be in the audience at the cancer conference as the fruits of 30 years of work are presented.

“To get to this point is an indescribable feeling, actually,” he said.


beautiful: yang lumpuh BERJALAN … 010612

Filed under: Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 11:40 pm

In Rat Experiment, New Hope for Spine Injuries

After several weeks of neurorehabilitation, previously paralyzed rats initiated a walking gait and soon began sprinting, climbing stairs and avoiding obstacles.
Published: May 31, 2012


Rats with a spinal cord injury that left their hind legs completely paralyzed learned to walk again on their own after an intensive training course that included electrical stimulation of the brain and the spine, scientists reported on Thursday.
Teaching Paralyzed Rats to Walk

Researchers have known for some time that stimulation and training can improve muscle control somewhat after such injuries in animals. And last year, an international team of scientists reported the case of a 23-year-old paraplegic who regained the ability to stand for a few minutes at a time after a similar program.

But the new study is the most comprehensive and rigorous presentation to date of what is possible, and the Swiss research team is already working on technology to test the techniques in humans.

The report, published online on Thursday in the journal Science, provides a striking demonstration of what until recently few scientists thought possible: complete rehabilitation after a disabling blow to the spinal cord. After weeks of training, many of the rats could walk as well as before the injury, and some could run.

The findings do not apply to all spinal injuries. The animals’ spinal columns were cut without being completely severed; there were still some nerve connections that extended intact through the injured area. But this is also the case for a substantial proportion — perhaps a quarter to a third — of people whose injuries are severe enough to confine them to a wheelchair.

“This is a very exciting study, and my first thought is that it is a proof of principle for treating spinal cord injuries from a wide variety of conditions, including cancer and even multiple sclerosis,” said Dr. Vineeta Singh, a neurologist at San Francisco General Hospital and the University of California, San Francisco, who was not involved in the study. “There’s a huge potential to refine this model to mimic more humanlike conditions.”

In the study, a research team led by Grégoire Courtine of the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, known as EPFL, gave a group of 10 rats the same surgical injury, cutting all direct nerve connections to the hind legs but stopping short of severing the spinal cord. The rats lost the use of their back legs, but not their front legs.

The rats then began a daily regimen. Outfitted with tiny vests, held upright on their back legs but left to bear their full weight, the rats tried to move toward a piece of cheese that beckoned nearby. They lurched forward like pint-size furry paratroopers, unsteady on their feet after a hard landing.

The scientists provided stimulation in three places: electrically, in the motor area of the brain and in the spinal cord below the injury, and chemically, infusing the wound area with drugs thought to promote growth.

And growth is what they got. After two to three weeks of 30-minute daily sessions, the rats began to take their first voluntary steps. After six weeks, all of the rats could walk on their own, and some could run and climb stairs.

A comparison group of rats that trained more passively on a treadmill did not recover nearly as well. Voluntary motion — hard work combined with sustained stimulation were necessary for the brain to re-establish command over the limbs.

“The way I think about it is that there is this little island of spare tissue in the injured area, and the neurons in that island begin to act as a relay center, bypassing the injury,” Dr. Courtine, who is also affiliated with the University of Zurich, said in a telephone interview.

In effect, he said, the training forces the brain to recruit what is left of the neural system to get the job done. Neurons sprout like seedlings on a Chia Pet when they are seeking new connections, and the scientists found increases of 300 percent and more in projections in the brain stem and around the injury — evidence that the nervous system was remapping its connections.

Dr. Courtine’s group has demonstrated such recoveries in some 100 rats and is now developing technology for a human trial.

“This effectively affirms in animal models how active state — the person is trying to move — paired with the spinal cord implant confer plasticity in spared neural connections,” Dr. Singh said in an e-mail.

Mei 25, 2012

beautiful: emaaa($1557)aa$ … 250512

Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 2:03 am

Jakarta — Emas berjangka ditutup menguat Kamis (24/5), atau rebound dari penutupan sehari sebelumnya yang melemah tipis. Namun pergerakan harga emas tak melaju cepat karena tertahan oleh menguatnya dolar AS.

Untuk pengiriman Juni, emas menguat US$9,10, atau 0,6%, menjadi US$1.557,50 per ons troy di Comex, divisi dariNew York Mercantile Exchange.

Emas sempat menguat hingga US$1.577,70, menurut FactSet Research. Penguatan emas kali ini sekaligus mengakhiri serangkaian pelemahan dalam tiga hari terakhir.

Di hampir sepanjang perdagangan Kamis, emas bergerak dengan dipengaruhi oleh dolar AS, dan logam mulia ini bergerak melambat setelah dolar AS mulai menguat.

Penguatan emas juga terkait dengan aksi investor yang melakukan rolled over ke kontrak Agustus.

Kontrak Juni memang masih besar volumenya, namun untuk kontrak Agustus sudah mulai menarik minat investor.

Untuk indeks dolar AS ditutup menguat ke 82,349, level tertinggi sejak sekitar 2010 dan naik dari posisi sehari sebelumnya di 82,073.

Logam lainnya menguat mengikuti emas, seperti perak untuk pengiriman Juli yang naik 64 sen, atau 2,3%, menjadi US$28,16 per ons. Platinum untuk Juli menguat US$8,30, atau 0,6%, menjadi US$1.422,40 per ons.


Sumber : IMQ21.COM

Mei 24, 2012

beautiful: emaaa($1561)aa$ … 240512

Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 2:16 am

SINGAPURA: Harga emas terus melemah, menyentuh level terdalam selama sepekan di tengah kekhawatiran bahwa krisis utang Eropa memburuk.

Di sisi lain penguatan dolar terus berlanjut menyentuh level tertinggi selama 20 bulan sehingga mengurangi daya tarik logam sebagai aset alternatif.

“Orang-orang pindah ke dolar karena semua orang takut euro runtuh,” kata Rick Trotman, analis senior di MLV & Co di New York, seperti dikutip dari Bloomberg.

Emas berjangka untuk pengiriman Juni turun 1,2% menjadi US$1.557,10 per ounce pukul 9.50 di Comex di New York. Level yang mendekat kerugian terbesar untuk kontrak teraktif sejak 16 Mei.

Bullion telah tergelincir 0,4% pada 2012, kembali mendekati level terbawah tahun ini. Kemarin, dolar melompat 3,4% bulan ini, sementara emas turun 5,3%.

“Dolar yang lebih kuat artinya menjatuhkan emas,” kata Marc Ground, ahli strategi komoditas Standard Bank Plc di Johannesburg.

Kepemilikan emas di SPDR Gold Trust turun 17,5 ton menjadi 1.265,4 ton kemarin, penurunan terbesar sejak 24 Agustus. Sementara itu, kontrak perak untuk pengiriman Juli merosot 2,3% menjadi US$27,54 per ounce.


MELBOURNE. Akhirnya, harga emas rebound di pasar Asia, setelah turun tajam kemarin. Kontrak emas untuk pengiriman Juni di Comex-AS naik 0,8% ke level US$ 1.561,30 per ons troy pada pukul 8.05 waktu Melbourne.

Sementara, emas batangan untuk pengantaran segera bergulir tipis ke posisi US$ 1.562,03 per ons troy.

Harga si kuning ini kembali menguat, setelah kemarin melorot 1,8% ke level US$ 1.548,40 di New York. Ini koreksi tertajamnya dalam dua pekan terakhir. Emas terpapas seiring penguatan dollar, yang dipicu kekhawatiran krisis Eropa bakal kian memburuk. Keperkasaan dollar meredupkan daya tarik emas sebagai aset alternatif investasi.



Mei 15, 2012

beautiful: emaaa($1520)aa$ … 150512

Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 2:35 am

JAKARTA: Ketika harga emas dan saham berguguran, sementara situasi tak kunjung menunjukkan tanda-tanda munculnya kepastian, apa yang harus dilakukan?

“Harga emas akan turun lagi ke US$1.520 dalam beberapa sesi perdagangan ini,” kata Frank McGhee, kepala diler Integrated Brokerage Services LLC di Chicago.

“Investor berpikir apabila Yunani keluar dari Euro, maka Portugal, Spanyol dan Italia akan keluar juga,” kata Shane Oliver, analis investasi AMP Capital Investors Ltd di Sydney.

“Saya pikir pekan ini kita akan melihat ketidakamanan dan volatilitas yang tinggi di pasar keuangan,” kata Alessandro Fezzi, analis LGT Capital Management AG di Swiss.

Itu semua pernyataan yang keluar hari ini. Lalu apa yang harus dilakukan? Berikut poin-poin analisis investasi hari ini, Selasa 14 Mei 2012. Oia, keputusan & tanggung jawab investasi ada di tangan Anda:


* Indeks Stoxx Europe 600 terlempar 1,8% ke 247,43

* Wall Street terpuruk, S&P 500 tergelincir 1,1% ke 1.338,35, terendah dalam 3,5 bulan

* Dow Jones terperosok 1% ke 12.695,35, terendah dalam 4 bulan

* Bursa acuan Asia pagi ini juga ikut terpuruk ke 117, 20,78, terendah dalam 4 bulan

* Nikkei, Kospi, S&P/ASX 200 Australia serentak masuk ke zona merah


* Minyak turun lebih dari 1,4% ke US$94,27 per barel, terendah dalam 5 bulan

* Emas tersungkur lebih dari 1,5% ke US$1.557,80 per ounce

* Penarikan dana investasi di sektor komoditas kembali terjadi pekan ini

Valas & obligasi

* Euro terus melemah. Nilai tukar dolar AS melambung ke level tertinggi 3 bulan

* Harga obligasi AS juga terus menguat, dengan yield –0,077 ke 1,760%

* Namun, perlemahan rupiah tertahan, mengindikasikan intervensi BI



Mei 10, 2012

beautiful: emaaa(rebound)aa$ … 100512

Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 3:27 pm

Gold Hits 2012 Low as Gold Miners Show Signs of Reversal
By Jeff Macke | Breakout – 1 hour 48 minutes ago

For those unfamiliar with the colorful lexicon of Wall Street, the term “never catch a falling knife” refers to the danger of buying stocks or commodities that are falling sharply in value. Also referred to as trying to call a bottom, attempts to take a position at the precise turning point of an asset’s price trend tends to end very poorly.

Which brings us to Michael Purves, chief global strategist at Weeden & Co., and his suggestion to consider taking bullish positions in not only gold, but the disastrous-looking gold miners (GDX).

Purves’ defense of the precious metal itself starts with the idea that gold has been in an uptrend for a decade. While true gold has fallen nearly 12% from April highs and has underperformed stocks dramatically for the last 6 months. These are mere hiccups for long-term holders but hardly an argument for new buyers today.

“The last time (gold) broke the 200-day moving average,” says Purvess referring to another technical measure recently breached, “was back during the Lehman Brothers crisis in 2008, 2009.”

Buyers at the time saw a 6-month consolidation leading to a double over the ensuing four years. Purves says today is “eerily similar.”

As for the miners, Purves concedes the “path of least resistance is down in the senior or junior miners.” As measured by the Market Vector Trusts (GDX) and (GDXJ) the frictionless path lower has led to declines of 23% and 44% respectively over the last year. If you’re looking for a visual depiction of the aforementioned “falling knives” look no further.

The buy argument is based on a study Purvess has done of the relationship between the value of gold and the share price of miners over the last 20 years. By that measure the mining related stocks have become radically, historically, undervalued relative to gold. In prior years that’s been a set-up for enormous rallies in the mining stocks.

Purves is making less a case for buying the miners here than for positioning oneself carefully on both the long and short side. For the shorts, the he cautions that they may be subject to a “violent whiplash.”

Those thinking of playing miners “tactically from the long side” Purves would consider call options out in the 2 – 3 month range.

For those inclined to avoid the risk of getting speared, sitting on the couch and watching the drama unfold may be the best positioning of all.

Mei 4, 2012

beautiful: kebijakan YANG TIDAK BIJAK$4N4 … 040512

Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY — bumi2009fans @ 12:49 pm

Jangan Cuma Menuding Rakyat Boros BBM
Haryo Damardono | Nasru Alam Aziz | Kamis, 26 April 2012 | 10:11 WIB

KOMPAS.com — Sudah jatuh tertimpa tangga. Itulah nasib malang rakyat Indonesia. Atas nama buruknya infrastruktur dan transportasi, mereka terpaksa membeli bahkan berutang untuk memiliki kendaraan pribadi. Kini, mereka dipaksa pula membeli bahan bakar minyak dengan harga lebih mahal seiring dengan rencana pembatasan pembelian BBM bersubsidi.

Sungguh, hidup di negeri ini seolah tanpa pilihan. Jika boleh memilih, tentu saja sebagian warga, seperti penduduk Tokyo, Jepang, memilih tidak membeli mobil pribadi. Jauh lebih baik hilir mudik naik kereta bawah tanah dan uang yang dihemat dapat untuk pesiar keliling dunia.

Jika boleh memilih, tentu enggan membeli mobil seharga 20-50 persen lebih tinggi daripada harga mobil di negara tetangga. Membayar asuransi mobil hampir Rp 10 juta tiap tahun. Mondar-mandir ke bengkel hanya untuk mengantre perawatan berjam-jam tiap 5.000 kilometer.

Kenapa rakyat Indonesia tetap getol membeli mobil? Tidak terhindari ada unsur prestise, tetapi sekali lagi, karena terbatasnya pilihan.

Tentu saja tidak ada dosanya membeli mobil pribadi. Terlebih ada industri dan ekonomi yang terus tumbuh dengan naiknya penjualan. Namun, pemerintah seharusnya menganalisis mengapa mobil pribadi bergerak tiap hari, tak sekadar pada akhir pekan seperti di negeri lain.

Tidak ada transportasi yang tepat waktu kala dibutuhkan. Pemerintah juga gagal menyediakan transportasi massal yang nyaman dengan tarif yang rasional. “Dengan demikian, rakyat jangan dituduh memboroskan BBM bersubsidi,” ujar Wakil Sekretaris Jenderal Masyarakat Transportasi Indonesia Bambang Harjo.

well, saat sistem busway dan TransJakarta pertama kali diluncurkan, gw langsung membandingkan dengan sistem transportasi publik di Brisbane, khususnya busway system (salah satu komentar gw: pisah jalan DONK … gw cuma berkomentar bahwa di Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, sistem busway mayoritas TERPISAH dari sistem transportasi jalan umum … terbukti sistem busway di Jakarta KAMSEUPAY … beneran cuma proyek akhir jabatan dan sama sekali tidak menjawab kemacetan dan KEADABAN BERTRANSPORTASI MASSAL … malah menambah kemacetan dan menimbulkan RAMALAN DOOMSDAY pada 2015, Jakarta AKAN MACET TOTAL … padahal SEMUA ORANG PINTAR ITU ADA DI JAKARTA 😛

Berulang kali pemerintah menyodorkan angka lonjakan volume penjualan BBM bersubsidi, seolah-olah kita menghadapi akhir zaman. Namun, di lain sisi, tidak ada penjelasan apalagi upaya memecahkan persoalan mengapa konsumsi melonjak. Tidak diurai mengapa kendaraan pribadi justru menjadi tulang punggung mobilitas di negeri ini.

Akademisi, pengamat, bahkan mantan Menteri Perhubungan Giri Suseno Hadihardjono menyerukan pentingnya membahas sisi permintaan bukan hanya pasokan BBM bersubsidi. Atau ringkasnya, jangan sekadar meributkan harga dan volume BBM subsidi. Akan tetapi, seruan itu bak suara orang yang berteriak-teriak di padang gurun. Hilang, tak berbekas.

Ketika tertimpa tangga, apa yang dapat dilakukan rakyat? Pasti menerima dan menyesuaikan diri. Kita bukan penguasa. Terlebih jika nantinya ditetapkan sanksi bagi mobil pribadi dengan kapasitas mesin 1.500 cc ke atas yang terbukti membeli BBM bersubsidi.

Namun, kita mengingatkan dan mengetuk nurani pemerintah untuk mempertimbangkan pengorbanan rakyat. Mempertimbangkan perjuangan rakyat, yang selama ini mencari solusi sendiri-sendiri dan berjibaku tiap hari di jalan raya menembus kemacetan.

Ketika kita dengan terpaksa menerima BBM dengan harga tinggi, tolong dicarikan dengan tempo sesingkat-singkatnya alternatif transportasi massal. Bukan transportasi massal yang sekadar diada-adakan, melainkan yang andal, murah, dan nyaman sehingga menarik perpindahan dari kendaraan pribadi ke transportasi massal.

beautiful: emaaa($1654)aa$ … 040512

Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 12:11 am

Harga Emas Alami Penurunan Terbesar Dalam Seminggu
Ester Meryana | Erlangga Djumena | Kamis, 3 Mei 2012 | 08:50 WIB

NEW YORK, KOMPAS.com – Harga emas mengalami penurunan terbesar dalam seminggu menyusul tiga pemungutan suara dari anggota Federal Open Market Committee menyimpulkan stimulus ekonomi lanjutan tidak diperlukan dan permintaan fisik di India selaku negara pengimpor emas terbesar pun turun.

Emas berjangka untuk pengantaran Juni turun 0,5 persen menjadi 1.654 dollar AS per troy ounce (setara dengan 31,1 gram) pada Rabu (2/5/2012) pukul 1:41 PM di Comex, New York. Ini penurunan terbesar untuk sebuah kontrak aktif sejak 23 April 2012.

Presiden Bank Sentral cabang San Francisco, John Williams bersama dengan rekannya dari Richmond, Philadelphia dan Atlanta ragu akan perlunya pembelian obligasi tambahan untuk menekan suku bunga jangka panjang sekalipun adanya kondisi realisasi perekrutan tenaga kerja AS kurang dari yang diperkirakan.

Berdasarkan data ADP Employer Services yang berbasis di New Jersey, perusahaan-perusahaan di AS hanya merekrut 119.000 tenaga kerja pada bulan April. Padahal Bloomberg memperkirakan penambahan bisa terjadi hingga 170.000 orang. Selain itu, menurut Bombay Bullion Association, India hanya mengimpor emas dari 30 menjadi 35 metrik ton pada bulan April. Ini turun dari 90 ton pada April tahun 2011. “Pasar jelas terlihat khawatir,” sebut Frank McGhee, Head Dealer Integrated Brokerage Services LLC, di Chicago, Rabu waktu setempat.

“Permintaan fisik juga sangat lemah,” tambah Frank.

Kepemilikan emas pada perdagangan bursa berjangka Selasa (1/5/2012) lalu, hanya 2.381,6 ton. Menurut Bloomberg, ini merupakan angka terendah sejak 1 Februari 2012. “Pembelian signifikan oleh reksa dana harus berlanjut untuk menghembuskan nyawa kepada emas,” sebut Edel Tully, analis UBS AG, di London. Sumber:
Sumber :

Mei 2, 2012

beautiful: emaaa(GADAI ati2)aa$ … 020512

Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 4:48 am

Jakarta – Bisnis gadai emas di perbankan syariah kini memang tengah menjadi primadona. Meski Bank Indonesia (BI) sudah memberikan “warning” dengan membatasi maksimal Rp250 juta per nasabah, namun angka itu terus saja meningkat. Simak saja, pada 2010 baru mencapai Rp1,9 triliun, namun meningkat tajam pada Desember 2011 mencapai Rp6,3 triliun. Bahkan, kini, nasabah spekulatif pembiayaan gadai emas banyak yang mengambil plafon di atas Rp250 juta dan kisarannya mencapai 98% dari total pembiayaan gadai emas di bank syariah.


Harus diakui, di satu sisi, bisnis gadai emas di perbankan syariah dipandang positif. Namun, di sisi lain, ia menjadi bahan kritikan karena fungsi intermediasi lembaga perbankan syariah dinilai menjadi kurang maksimal.

Kekhawatiran BI terhadap bisnis gadai emas pun sangat beralasan. Sebab, apabila aktivitas Rahn emas semakin dominan, dikhawatirkan industri perbankan syariah dapat terekspos risiko-risiko.

Selain itu, gadai emas rentan dijadikan ajang para spekulan untuk mencari keuntungan yang sebesar-besarnya. Pada akhirnya, tujuan awal gadai emas dikhawatirkan menjadi bertolak belakang, untuk investasi atau spekulasi. Tak pelak, potensi bubble pun menyeruak ke permukaan.

Menanggapi hal itu, pengamat perbankan UI Budi Frensidy menegaskan, dengan lewatnya plafon yang telah ditetapkan BI maksimal sebesar Rp250 juta per nasabah, maka terjadi banyaknya spekulasi yang artinya bisa menimbulkan bubble. “Saya pastikan ada bubble. Kan, angkanya lewat dari batas yang ditentukan BI. Jadi, saya dukung BI mengeluarkan peraturan pembatasan gadai emas lebih ketat lagi”, tegas Budi kepada Neraca, Selasa (1/5).

Budi lalu memberi contoh spekulasi yang dimaksud. Dimana selama ini nasabah hanya mencari untung dari kenaikan harga emas. Sehingga, bukannya untuk pembiayaan melainkan keuntungan pribadi. “Apalagi kalau harga emas dunia naik. Itu bisa menutupi harga transaksi,” tambah Budi.

Oleh karena itu, terkait sanksi, dosen FEUI ini mengatakan harus dicabut ijinnya jika melanggar ketentuan BI lebih dari tiga kali. “Sanksi tergantung tingkat kesalahan. Mulai dari melarang transaksi gadai emas minimal satu tahun. Dan kalau masih membandel atau lebih dari tiga kali, cabut izin banknya,” tukas Budi lagi.

Sementara Direktur Utama PT Bank Syariah Bukopin (BSB) Riyanto mengakui bahwa minat masyarakat kian lama kian meningkat kepada perseroan untuk gadai emas. “Saya akui selama ini rumor pembiayaan gadai emas di bank syariah terindikasi menjadi media spekulatif para spekulan. Pasalnya, nasabah spekulatif pembiayaan gadai emas banyak mengambil plafon besar dengan pembiayaan di atas Rp250 juta dan kisarannya mencapai 98% dari total pembiayaan gadai emas di bank syariah”, ungkap Riyanto saat dihubungi kemarin.

Riyanto menambahkan, wajar saja banyak spekulan karena harga emas yang fluktuatif dan kerap mengalami volatilitas cukup tinggi memicu spekulan untuk bermain di dalamnya.

Dia pun membenarkan pembiayaan gadai emas akan terjadi bom waktu bagi perbankan jika tidak dilakukan dengan hati-hati. “Benar, banyak spekulan yang bisa bermain. Maka dari itu, kami akan mengikuti regulasi Bank Indonesia. Kami juga tidak akan keluar dari BI karena artinya bisa berbalik keadaannya. Sekarang juga ada penyempurnaan dari BI dalam mengelola resiko gadai emas. Simpel saja, diikuti”, tukas dia.

Lebih jauh, Riyanto menilai, regulasi BI saat ini sudah konservatif tapi tidak menutup kemungkinan perseroan akan lebih konservatif untuk menekan spekulan dan supaya pembiayaan gadai emas benar-benar berkualitas.

“Aturan BI sekarang sudah cukup konservatif. Secara otomatis akan menyaring nasabah. Seperti plafon Rp 250 juta. Kami bisa saja lebih kecil, Rp 150 juta misalnya. Lalu kami juga atur pembatasan maksimal transaksi hanya dua kali gadai emas. Ini bentuk pengelolaan resiko kami. Sekali lagi, ini bukan untuk investasi melainkan jawaban nasabah unutk memenuhi kebutuhan mendesak jangka pendek “, kata Riyanto.

Penurunan Volume

Sedangkan pengamat perbankan syariah Adiwarman Karim melihat bahwa sejak diterapkan surat edaran (SE) di bawah peraturan Bank Indonesia (PBI) khusus untuk mengatur praktik gadai emas bank syariah, telah terjadi penurunan volume gadai emas pada akhir tahun lalu, khususnya tiga perbankan syariah yang paling banyak menjual produk gadai emas, yakni Bank Syariah Mandiri, BRI Syariah, dan Bank Danamon Syariah. “Angka pastinya saya lupa, tapi ini berlalu bagi bank umum syariah dan unit usaha syariah. Gadai emas tetap dijual namun mengikuti aturan BI,” jelas Adiwarman Karim kemarin.

Adiwarman menegaskan, pasca-PBI keluar transaksi gadai emas ada barangnya, yaitu emas batangan. Hal ini berbeda ketika PBI belum dikeluarkan. “Dulu, ada beberapa oknum bank syariah membuat skema kebun atau angsa emas. Nah, ini nggak boleh karena derivatif jadi ujungnya spekulasi. Sekarang sudah seperti Pegadaian, ada surat ada barang,” ujarnya.

Sedangkan terkait Bank Perkreditan Rakyat (BPR) ikut main di gadai emas, Adiwarman menilai hal tersebut telah diatur juga dalam PBI. Mengenai sanksi yang diterapkan seandainya masih ada bank syariah atau unit usaha syariah membandel, ada tahapannya. “Mulai dari peringatan, kepatuhan, sampai larangan menjual produk gadai emas. Tentunya bertahap. Ini sebagai bentuk pengawasan bank sentral,” ujarnya.

Yang jelas, mencermati perkembangan yang terjadi seputar fenomena gadai emas syariah, BI sebagai regulator kemudian mengevaluasi praktik Qardh beragun emas. Evaluasi tersebut menemukan adanya ketidaksesuaian dengan perizinan awal, kebijakan dan praktik gadai emas yang mengarah kepada spekulasi, kelemahan kontrol internal, dan potensi-potensi risiko.

Potensi-potensi risiko tersebut dapat terjadi dalam bentuk risiko operasional, risiko pasar, risiko likuiditas, risiko kredit, risiko reputasi, dan risiko hukum terhadap bank yang memiliki produk gadai emas syariah.

Untuk itu, BI telah meminta bank-bank untuk menghentikan produk gadai, melakukan audit terhadap seluruh konter layanan gadai (KLG) , dan melakukan perbaikan prosedur operasional standar (SOP) serta memperkuat kontrol internal.

Bagi bank yang masih diperkenankan untuk menjalankan produk gadai, Bank Indonesia berpesan agar mewaspadai adanya pembiayaan gadai yang ditujukan untuk spekulasi, menurunkan rasio loan to value (LTV) menjadi maksimum 80% dari rata-rata harga jual dan harga pembelian kembali Antam, dan memastikan barang jaminan emas sudah diterima sebelum pencairan pembiayaan. ardi/maya/rin


/Sumber : NERACA.CO.ID

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