eK0n0mi taK seriU$ d/h ekonomitakserius@blogspot.com

April 30, 2012

beautiful: emaaa(71%)aa$ … 300412

Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 2:49 pm

Investasi Properti Masih Kalah dari Emas
M.Latief | Latief | Senin, 30 April 2012 | 12:35 WIB

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com – Sebanyak 71 % pelaku investasi di Indonesia memilih menginvestasikan emas dibanding investasi lainnya. Posisi kedua pilihan investasi terbanyak ditempati oleh jenis investasi properti, yang mencapai 58 % untuk menopang pertumbuhan kekayaan para affluent (kelas atas) Indonesia.

Demikian siaran pers Standard Chartered Bank kepada Kompas.com di Jakarta, Senin (30/4/2012), terkait survei terhadap para pelaku affluent Indonesia. Berdasarkan survey tersebut rata-rata pelaku masih meminati emas sebagai investasi utamanya.

General Manager Priority and International Banking Standard Chartered, Djumariah Tenteram, mengatakan hasil Survei FuturePriority di Jakarta itu secara keseluruhan memaparkan tiga besar investasi yang masih didominasi oleh emas. Ia mengatakan, masyarakat Indonesia masih sangat suka berinvestasi dalam bentuk emas.

Di posisi ketiga, investor Indonesia memilih deposito atau simpanan dengan bunga tinggi sebagai penyokong penambahan kekayaannya dengan jumlah pemilih sebesar 42 persen. Menurut Djumariah, penyebabnya lantaran harga emas yang menarik para investor.

“Menarik, karena kalau dilihat 2-3 tahun lalu harga emas masih Rp 200 – Rp 300 ribu per gram. Saat ini harganya sudah sekitar Rp 490 – Rp 500 ribu per gram, bahkan Rp 520 ribu,” tutur Djumariah.

Adapun survei FuturePriority yang dilaksanakan Standard Chartered Bank dengan Scorpio Partnership berlangsung antara Oktober dan Noveber 2011. Cakupan survey ini sekitar 2.768 segmen affluent di sembilan pasar Asia, seperti China, Hongkong, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapura, Korea Selatan, Taiwan dan Thailand. Survei dilakukan kepada para pelaku affluent di sejumlah negara di Asia yang memiliki rata-rata aset bersih sebesar 1,4 juta Dolar AS.

Iklan

April 25, 2012

beautiful: emaaa($1642)aa$ … 250412

Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 12:19 am

Pelemahan dollar picu emas rebound di Asia
Oleh Dupla Kartini, Bloomberg – Rabu, 25 April 2012 | 06:31 WIB
kontan

SINGAPURA. Harga emas rebound di pasar Asia, setelah sempat tergerus di New York. Pelemahan dollar AS telah memicu investor memburu emas, sebagai alternatif investasi yang aman.

Kontrak emas untuk pengiriman Juni naik tipis ke level US$ 1.642,20 per ons troy pada pukul 6.02 waktu Singapura, setelah sempat jatuh 0,2% di Comex, New York. Harga si kuning ini tercatat sudah melaju 4,9% di sepanjang tahun ini.

Adapun, nilai tukar dollar AS melemah 0,4%, setelah yield obligasi Spanyol dan Italia turun. Yield yang lebih rendah di Eropa telah meredakan kekhawatiran bakal memburuknya krisis utang di wilayah tersebut.

“Berita soal stabilitas di Eropa mendorong posisi dollar lebih rendah. Investor nampanya akan mempertimbangkan aset berisiko pada hari ini,” kata Sterling Smith, analis pasar di Country Hedging.

Sebagai informasi, data IMF menunjukkan, beberapa negara mulai menambah cadangan emasnya. Misalnya, Meksiko yang meningkatkan cadangan emas sebesar 16,8 metrik ton menjadi 122,6 ton pada bulan lalu. Selain itu, di bulan yang sama, Turki, Rusia dan Kazakhstan juga tercatat telah menambah kepemilikan emas mereka.

April 23, 2012

beautiful: berbaha$a … 230412

Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY — bumi2009fans @ 1:05 am

The fine art of asking questions which will encourage the learner to induce the grammatical basis for answering the question, not only correctly, but also with the appropriate sounds of the new language as it delivers the meaning involved, is what enables the programmed Pimsleur course to make language acquisition happen whenever the audio is heard.

This is the highly significant difference between Pimsleur programs and all other sets of published language materials. It is the secret to why Pimsleur works and creates in the learner a significant and measurable set of communication skills, provided the scheduled learning activities are followed as prescribed by the Pimsleur methodology.

The programs are based on a few key principles:

1. Graduated Interval Recall

Dr. Pimsleur’s research on memory was perhaps one of his most revolutionary achievements. He discovered that if his students were reminded of new words and information at gradually increasing intervals within a set amount of time, each time they would remember the word or information longer than the time before. Dr. Pimsleur documented that the word would actually move from short-term into long-term, or permanent, memory. Through his research he was able to create a schedule of the exact points for maximum retention.

2. Principle of Anticipation

In real-life communication you are required to understand what is being said to you and to “anticipate” a correct response. It’s an intricate thought process that most of us take for granted when speaking our native language. Dr. Pimsleur’s research demonstrated that by initiating this dynamic “input/output” system, that new connections are formed in the learner’s brain. By systematically asking for understanding and response, the Principal of Anticipation is activated, accelerating learning and synergistically increasing understanding.

3. Core Vocabulary

Pimsleur courses are designed to teach you to understand and speak your new language in a relatively short time. Extensive research has shown that effective communication in any language depends on mastery of a relatively limited number of words. Trying to learn too many at first actually slows the process. However, once these core words are mastered and used consistently, they provide a framework for accelerated language learning.

4. Organic Learning

The Pimsleur® Method centers on teaching functional mastery, understanding and speaking right from the beginning. Your brain does all the work: acquiring the sounds, feeling the rhythm, and integrating the intonation in much the same way that you learned your first language. When you need a word, it’s there – totally integrated and totally seamless. And the best part is that the phrases you’re learning are the ones you’ll be most likely to need right from the start. Language really comes alive as vocabulary, grammar, and beautiful, native-like pronunciation are at the tip of your tongue, ready whenever you are.
Ingin Kuasai 10 Bahasa, Ini Tips Paul Pimsleur
RepublikaRepublika – 23 jam yang lalu

REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, NEW YORK — Sebuah penelitian ilmiah yang pernah dilakukan seorang ilmuwan spesialis linguistik terapan, Dr. Paul Pimsleur Ph.D, mengungkapkan bahwa kemampuan otak manusia dalam menguasai bahasa asing sungguh luar biasa. Pimsleur memaparkan bahwa otak manusia ternyata mampu menguasai 10 bahasa dunia dalam waktu cepat.

Pimsleur mengungkapkan bahwa otak manusia memiliki saluran khusus yang dapat mempelajari setiap kosakata baru. Bahkan dari berbagai bahasa yang tidak pernah dikenalnya. Namun, menurut Pimsleur, selama ini hampir semua manusia belum mengaktifkan saluran otak linguistik tersebut.

Biro Intelejen Federal Amerika Serikat (FBI) dan Agen Keamanan Nasional Amerika telah menggunakan pendekatan Pimsleur ini. Pimsleur telah mengabdikan seluruh hidupnya untuk mempelajari bahasa dan pemahaman psikologi akusisi bahasa dunia.

Pimsleur membeberkan sedikit metode pembelajaran komunikasi efektifnya. Menurut dia, penguasaan efektif bahasa apapun itu berkunci pada penguasaan jumlah kosa kata inti yang digunakan secara konsisten. Kemudian kosa kata itu dibuat dalam kerangka kerja sebagai media berkomunikasi sesering mungkin dengan berbagai tingkatan.

Di sisi lain, Pimsleur menjelaskan kesalahan dalam mempelajari bahasa asing. Yaitu ketika memasukkan dan menghafalkan kata-kata terlalu cepat dan banyak secara bersamaan di awal pembelajaran. Menurut dia, ini benar-benar dapat memperlambat proses retensi bahasa.

Metode pendekatan Pimsleur mengajarkan pembelajaran bahasa dengan menggunakan kosakata inti. Sehingga, seseorang segera berbicara banyak dalam waktu cepat. Penguasaan bahasa tidak hanya pada berapa banyak kata yang diketahui saja, melainkan juga kata-kata yang dapat digunakan.

Pelajaran bahasa menggunakan pendekatan Pimsleur ini telah teruji dan dicoba di seluruh dunia. Metodenya dapat membuat orang menguasai materi bahasa secara cepat. Penggunaan bahasa tersebut kemudian tersimpan di dalam memori otak setelah mendengarkan hanya satu kali saja.

Pimsleur juga menekankan pembelajaran bahasa harus menyenangkan dan memudahkan dalam tempo yang singkat dan inten. Dengan begitu, seseorang akan gampang menyerap bahasa baru dengan mudah. Dia menyadari bahwa anak memiliki kemampuan luar biasa dalam belajar bahasa baru dengan cepat.

Dr. Paul Pimsleur adalah seorang pendidik bahasa selama lebih dari 20 tahun hingga wafatnya di 1976. Ia menghabiskan hidupnya mengembangkan metode ini untuk menguji coba kemampuan orang dalam belajar bahasa baru dengan mudah.

April 19, 2012

beautiful: shelter vertikal @tsunami-gempa … 200412

Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY — bumi2009fans @ 9:23 pm

Bukit Buatan Antisipasi Gempa dan Tsunami Mentawai
Yunanto Wiji Utomo | Tri Wahono | Kamis, 19 April 2012 | 19:21 WIB

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com – Salah satu gempa besar yang dikhawatirkan merusak adalah gempa Mentawai. Besaran gempa diperkirakan mencapai 8,9 Skala Richter dan berpotensi menimbulkan tsunami. Area paling terancam antara lain Pagai, Mentawai, Sipora, dan Kota Padang.

Kepala Pusat Data Informasi dan Humas Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana Sutopo Purwo Nugroho mengatakan, potensi bahaya gempa dan tsunami yang berpusat di Mentawai itu harus diwaspadai. Sejumlah analisis memperkirakan tingkat bahaya yang bisa ditimbulkan.

“Dalam waktu 20-30 menit, tsunami akan mencapai Kota Padang. Ketinggian gelombang tsunami 6-10 meter dan mencapai jarak 5 km,” ungkap Sutopo dalam konferensi pers di gedung BNPB, Juanda, Jakarta Pusat, Kamis (19/4/2012).

Sebagai antisipasi gempa dan tsunami yang belum bisa diperkirakan waktu kejadiannya itu, Badan Nasional Penanggulan Bencana bekerja sama dengan lembaga di dalam dan luar negeri mengembangkan strategi untuk meminimalisasi resiko bencana.

Sutopo mengatakan, ada 1,3 juta jiwa yang hidup di tepi pantai Sumatera Barat. Sejumlah warga harus menuju tempat lebih tinggi selama 40 menit. Sementara tsunami datang dalam waktu 20-30 menit, waktu mengungsi tak mencukupi.

Sebagai solusinya, direncanakan pembangunan shelter vertikal. Tujuannya adalah menjadi tempat penampungan sejumlah warga agar terhindar dari dampak tsunami. Pembangunan shelter direncanakan pada tahun 2013-2014.

“Padang perlu 300-500 shelter. Saat ini baru ada 7. Semua bangunan shelter ini harus tahan gempa,” ungkap Sutopo.

Untuk mendukung shelter, direncanakan juga pembangunan bukit buatan yang mampu menampung 30.000 – 75.000 penduduk saat tsunami terjadi. Bukit berukuran 100 x 130 meter. “Sudah ada 11 lokasi potensial untuk bukit buatan di Padang,” papar Sutopo.

Shelter dan bukit buatan juga akan dibangun di Bandara Tabing. Namun, pembangunannya masih akan dikaji untuk mengetahui dampak pembangunan pada aktivitas penerbangan di bandara setempat.

Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan shelter, diharapkan masyarakat juga ikut berpartisipasi. salah satu bentuknya adalah pembangunan shelter mandiri. Saat ini, salah satu shelter mandiri adalah Masjid Al Muhajirin di Pasir Putih Padang.

Shelter dalam bentuk tempat ibadah adalah salah satu yang efektif. Di Mentawai, di mana kebanyakan penduduk adalah Kristiani, shelter mandiri bisa berupa gereja.

Selain shelter dan bukit buatan, direncanakan juga pemenuhan kebutuhan 1000 sirene, 553 Digital Video Broadcast, 200 seismometer, dan lainnya. BNPB juga berencana untuk mengedukasi masyarakat menyelamatkan diri saat gempa dan tsunami.

“Pemerintah menyediakan Rp 3-5 triliun untuk pembangunan, sistem peringatan dini, dan kebutuhan lainnya,” kata Sutopo.

April 15, 2012

beautiful: LAGE, terbukti RAMALAN gampang b00ng … 150412

Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 2:53 pm

Fund Manager to Lose Hair After Betting on $2,000 Bullion
By Liezel Hill – Apr 14, 2012 1:51 AM GMT+0700
============
… kisah ini NYATA terjadi, seorang AHLI MARKET TIMING (peramal harga komoditas sesuai dengan jangka waktu tertentu) yang PROFESIONAL telah meramalkan tingkat harga emas global @$2000 pada tgl SEBELUM 16 APRIL 2012 … ternyata harga emas pada 13 April 2012 @$1654… berarti RAMALANNYA TERBUKTI SALAH BESAR … well, itu sebabnya gw yang merangkap fungsi trader dan investor SELALU MENGKLAIM BAHWA GW BUKAN PERAMAL (neh, blog gw yang berjudul: jo bukan peramal, gw cuma trader) … tapi tumben tuh aka KEBETULAN ada juga inves 5 bulan gw yang bisa mencapai triple digit (ratusan persen) potential gain : hero ratusan persen dan wika seratus persen … gw juga tetap bertrading dengan cara yang maseh oke, yaitu FOKUS LABA DALAM TREN TURUN, makanya gw mampu mendekati harga terendah setiap saham gw yang sedang dalam tren turun : simak semua catatan gw dalam trading sehari-hari mengejar 1 Milyar dengan modal cuma beberapa puluh juta aja
======================
Charles Oliver, a Sprott Asset Management Inc. portfolio manager in Toronto, will have his head shaved today after losing a bet on the gold price.

Oliver joined Sprott in January 2008 and told clients at a meeting four months later he was so convinced bullion would reach $2,000 an ounce by April 16, 2012, he was willing to stake his hair on it. Gold was at $945 an ounce at the time.

“We got to $1,923 last September, I thought it was all good and easy straight from there on in,” Oliver, who co- manages the C$500 million ($501 million) Sprott Gold and Precious Metals Fund, said in a telephone interview today. “The markets can sometimes tease you.”

Gold futures for June delivery slid 1.5 percent to $1,654.70 at 1:49 p.m. on the Comex in New York. Gold on the Comex peaked at a record $1,923.70 an ounce on Sept. 6.

Oliver, who’s been letting his hair grow out for about two years, said he still expects gold will reach $2,000 and that there’s a “very strong chance” it will get there this year.

“I’m not going to make any new bets yet,” he said.

Gold prices will rise as countries increase money supplies, he said. Investor demand for gold has surged as the Federal Reserve’s accommodative monetary policy spurred declines in the dollar, boosting the appeal of precious metals as an alternative asset. Gold surged 70 percent from December 2008 to June 2011 as the central bank set interest rates at a record low and bought $2.3 trillion of debt in two rounds of quantitative easing.

“Governments are going to continue to run large deficits and to fund it they are going to print,” he said. “That’s great for gold.”

Oliver is also running a charity event associated with the bet, he said. He’s pledged C$100,000 and is hoping to raise more than C$1 million, he said.

beautiful: serangan jantung saat berolahraga … 150412

Filed under: Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 2:33 am

Apa Sesungguhnya Penyebab Kematian Morosini?

INILAH.COM, Livorno – Nasib Tragis menimpa gelandang Livorno Piermario Morosini yang tewas usai mendadak terjatuh di lapangan. Lalu, apakah penyebab sesunggunya kematiannya? Berikut ulasannya.

Dalam pertandingan lanjutan Kompetisi Seri B melawan Pescara yang dihelat di Stadion Adriatico, Sabtu (14/4/2012) malam WIB, Morosini mendadak terjatuh di lapangan di menit ke-33.

Sejurus kemudian, petugas medis langsung masuk ke dalam lapangan guna memberikan pertolongan pertama, termasuk memberikan Cardiac Massage.

Morosini kemudian dibawa ke rumah sakit dengan menggunakan mobil ambulan. Pertandingan pun kemudian dihentikan.

Hingga kini, penyebab utama kematian Morosini masih belum jelas. Beberapa dokter menyatakan bahwa kematiannya disebabkan oleh serangan jantung hingga tiga kali.

Namun, beberapa dokter lainnya menyatakan kematian Morosini disebabkan oleh Aneurysm. Itu adalah melemahnya dan membengkaknya area pada aorta, pembuluh darah utama yang menyuplai darah ke seluruh tubuh.

Aorta adalah saluran yang terbentang dari jantung ke tubuh melalui bagian tengah dada dan area perut. Itu Karena aorta adalah penyuplai darah utama. Pecahnya aortic aneurysm dapat menyebabkan pendarahan yang mengancam jiwa.

Bahkan, pelatih Lecce Serse Cosmi menyebutkan bahwa kematian Morosini karena Tuhan memang menginginkannya untuk kembali berkumpul dengan keluarganya. Morosini kehilangan kedua orangtuanya di usia yang masih sangat muda. Sementara, saudara lelakinya baru-baru ini bunuh diri.

“Hidup memaksanya menghadapi cobaan yang sangat berat. Takdir menginginkannya untuk kembali berkumpul dengan keluarganya. Kehidupan keluarganya sangat tragis,” ujarnya sebagaiman dilansir Football Italia.

“Hal positif yang bisa saya ambil dari kematiannya adalah dia kini bisa kembali berkumpul bersama keluarganya di akhirat sana,” sambung mantan pelatih yang memberikan debut bagi Morosini saat masih menukangi Udinese.

Namun ada juga tuduhan kematian Morosini disebabkan keterlambatan penanganan medis di lokasi. Pasalnya, butuh sekitar enam menit usai dia ambruk, mobil ambulans baru bisa memasuki Stadion Adriatico. Kabarnya keterlambatan tersebut karena mobil polisi lalu lintas menghalangi pintu masuk darurat stadion.

Morosini Tewas, Seluruh Laga Seri A Ditunda

Oleh: Arie Nugroho
Bola – Minggu, 15 April 2012 | 00:05 WIB

INILAH.COM, Milan – Federasi Sepakbola Italia FIGC memutuskan menunda seluruh pertandingan sepakbola pekan ini menyusul tewasnya gelandang Livorno Piermario Morosini.

Dalam pertandingan lanjutan Kompetisi Seri B melawan Pescara yang dihelat di Stadion Adriatico, Sabtu (14/4/2012) malam WIB, Morosini mendadak terjatuh di lapangan di menit ke-33.

Sejurus kemudian, petugas medis langsung masuk ke dalam lapangan guna memberikan pertolongan pertama, termasuk memberikan Cardiac Massage.

Morosini kemudian dibawa ke rumah sakit dengan menggunakan mobil ambulan. Pertandingan pun kemudian dihentikan.

Dokter yang memeriksa kondisi Morosini, Dr. De Blasi, menyatakan bahwa Morosini meninggal dalam perjalanan ke Rumah Sakit.

Terkait kejadian tragis itu, Direktur Umum FIGC, Antonello Valentini, menuturkan bahwa semua laga sepakbola di Italia ditunda dan bakal dijadwal ulang.

Di kancah Seri A sendiri, sejatinya ada dua partai menarik yang seharusnya berlangsung, yakni pertandingan antara AC Milan melawan Genoa dan Udinese berhadapan dengan Inter Milan.

Heart attack risks are greater for athletes who compete in endurance sports
Endurance athletes who exercise for three hours or more have an increased chance of dying from a cardiac arrest

tired runnerAbout 1 in 50,000: if you run marathons or participate in other forms of exercise which last for three hours or more, that’s your approximate risk of suffering an acute heart attack or sudden cardiac death during – or within 24 hours of – your effort. For every 50,000 athletes, one will be stricken during such prolonged activity(1). Running a marathon or cycling intensely for three hours is riskier than taking a commercial airline flight, even in these troubled times!

You might think we shouldn’t make such a claim in a newsletter which appeals to serious competitors, including a large number of marathon runners. But at Peak Performance our job is to provide you with all the facts about your sport, not just the pretty ones.

The truth is that marathon runners, ironman triathletes and long-distance cyclists, swimmers, rowers and cross-country skiers are all in the same boat. In fact, any athlete who participates in a strenuous test of endurance lasting about three hours or more has an increased chance of dying during – and for 24 hours following – the exertion, even when the athlete’s chance of a death-door knock is compared with the risk incurred by a cigarette-smoking, sedentary layabout who spends the same 24 hours drinking beer and watching TV. The reasons for this are not entirely clear, but the heightened risks of a visit from the Grim Reaper are unsettling to most athletes, especially those who exercise in the hope of improving cardiovascular and overall health.

To find out why strenuous exercise temporarily increases the risk of death, researchers at the University of Innsbruck in Austria recently studied 38 male participants in the 1999 Tyrolean Otztaler Radmarathon, a cycling race which covers 230k, with an altitude change of 5,500m. The Radmarathon is often said to be comparable in difficulty to the hardest mountain stages of the Tour de France (2).

All 38 subjects were experienced, well-trained amateur cyclists who were free of cardiovascular risk factors and without evidence of heart disease. The Austrian researchers were especially interested in monitoring their blood levels of a specific heart enzyme called cardiac troponin I, which happens to be the most sensitive and specific marker for the detection of heart-muscle death.

Cardiac troponin I values, which were essentially at zero in all athletes before the beginning of the Radmarathon (thankfully, since you don’t want your heart to start dying on you just before you begin a 230k bike race!) increased in 13 (34%) of the cyclists immediately after the competition. The risk factors for elevated cardiac troponin I included:
age – being young was ‘bad’;

race time – racing fast increased the risk, and the highest post-race cardiac troponin 1 level was detected in the athlete with the fastest Radmarathon time;

pre-race training distance – the higher the overall training volume, the greater the chances of increased cardiac troponin I after the race.

Taken together, these results suggested that younger, fitter athletes, who put more stress on their hearts (via greater training volume and higher racing intensities), were the ones most likely to incur myocardial damage.
Why heart muscle cells may die during prolonged exercise

Why were cardiac troponin I concentrations up after the Austrian race? According to the researchers, many of the well-trained athletes probably experienced sub-clinical cardiac injury during the event and this was associated with the actual deaths of heart-muscle cells. The mechanism underlying such cardiac cell deaths is unknown, although one popular theory suggests that the heightened adrenaline/noradrenaline levels sometimes observed during prolonged exercise rather perversely lead to the constriction of coronary arteries, which results in localised cell death within the heart. (Adrenaline and noradrenaline – also known as epinephrine and norepinephrine – are hormones released by the adrenal glands in response to stressful situations.)

Heart-cell death during strenuous exercise? Yes, it is a bit like having a small heart attack at the same time that your heart is performing magnificently! In fact, cardiac troponin I is usually undetectable in the blood serum of healthy people but is typically found in those who have suffered a myocardial infarction (heart attack), congestive heart failure, or myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle). In fact, the enzyme is used predictively by heart specialists: the higher the level in a particular patient, the poorer his prognosis.

This sounds bad! But has anyone besides the Austrians uncovered evidence of heart-structure damage after strenuous exercise? Actually, yes: one study of finishers in the Hawaii Ironman Triathlon found that 9% displayed elevated cardiac troponin 1 levels and, further, that these individuals also exhibited abnormal heart wall action and function during echocardiographic analyses(3). Another investigation found cardiac-troponin increases in 11% of the finishers of an alpine cross-country marathon (4).

Is the positive post-exercise increase in cardiac troponin I really something to worry about? Were the heart cell deaths merely a small piece of the cardiac pie? Could the lost cells be replaced by regrowth of healthy heart tissue? These key questions are very difficult to answer, especially as no histological analyses of heart tissue were performed as part of these studies, and neither were echocardiograms or electrocardiograms (ECG) carried out to determine whether heart function was impaired. To play it safe, the Austrian researchers suggested that endurance athletes ‘should at least undergo serial cardiovascular examinations looking for subtle evidence of myocardial dysfunction’.
The good news for endurance athletes on the cardiac front

Before you get too spooked by these findings, bear in mind that there is also some good news for endurance athletes on the cardiac front. For one thing, it’s clear that regular exercise protects you from heart attacks over broad time frames; for example, over the course of a year regular exercisers will have fewer cardiac failures than their sedentary counterparts. Also, some studies have not linked extremely strenuous exercise with cardiac damage: for example, when sports medicine specialists at the University of California studied 23 ultramarathon runners who completed the 100-mile Western States Endurance Run, a rugged race through the Sierra Mountains over steep terrain and through temperature extremes, they were unable to find any race-related cardiac damage (5).

The 23 runners completed the 100-mile race in an average time of 23.5 hours, with a range of 18.9-27.1; their ages ranged from 29 to 62 (with an average of 45) and all but three were men, none with a history of heart disease. Although all of the subjects suffered massive skeletal muscle damage during the competition (as evidenced by huge increases in serum creatine kinase levels after the race), not a single runner exhibited heightened cardiac troponin levels after the extremely prolonged exertion was over.

None the less, an increasing body of evidence indicates that some heart damage can occur during extreme exercise. In the very latest study completed at Massachusetts General Hospital and the Harvard Medical School, researchers tracked 82 runners with an average age of 47 who ran the Boston Athletic Association Marathon for five consecutive years, from 1997 to 2001. These runners had no history of coronary disease, were non-smokers and averaged 25 training miles per week(6). But their cardiac troponin I levels increased roughly 6.5-fold both four and 24 hours post-race.
No one knows how long exertion related heart damage lasts

Again, we must pose the key question – is this exertion-related damage to the heart long-lasting, or does the heart recover promptly without long-term negative effects? Unfortunately, no one knows the answer to this question right now. If you are interested in running marathons, you will have to decide for yourself if the real risk associated with the race is tolerable or not – and whether the long-term perceived risk is serious enough to warrant changing your competitive activities.

Our traditional argument that prolonged endurance activity is not bad for the heart is based on evidence that marathon runners have fairly low death rates from cardiovascular disease (when you look at them away from the race itself and the 24-hour ‘window’ that follows it). Essentially, research indicates that well-trained endurance athletes have about 40% of their sedentary counterpart’s risk of dying from a cardiac problem on a typical day (7). If strenuous exercise is really so bad for the heart, why aren’t endurance athletes keeling over at higher rates?

Note, though, that this latter argument is not entirely compelling. It is possible that marathoners might have even lower frequencies of heart attacks if they gave up marathoning and focused on shorter events which are less taxing for the heart. In support of this theory, former marathon runner Dr Arthur J Siegel of McLean Hospital in Belmont, Massachusetts (one of the investigators in the study cited above) recently told Reuters Health that running a marathon is, in effect, like overdosing on a good thing. With a more moderate approach, cardiovascular risk would still be lowered, while the elevated risks associated with marathon-like events would be avoided. Add marathon efforts to the brew, and you get the general reduction in risk but with an added risk associated with the race itself (and perhaps its long preparatory runs).

If you are having second thoughts about running marathons, you should know that the previously quoted rate of one death per 50,000 marathon runners might be a bit high. For example, there is evidence that in male runners aged 30-64 who have not been diagnosed with heart disease, there is approximately one death for each 800,000 ‘person-hours’ of running or jogging (8). This implies that if 800,000 healthy middle-aged males began running the New York City Marathon, one of them would probably die during the first hour of the event, another during the second hour and another during the third. This kind of death rate would create some bad publicity, so it is a good thing that the New York Marathon limits the number of entrants to less than 30,000 (thus trimming the incidence of death to about one every seven years). If one assumes an average finishing time of four hours, the 800,000 figure projects a death rate of one per 200,000 marathon entrants, considerably lower than the earlier estimate of one in 50,000. Incidentally, it is known that females have a much lower risk, although the relative mortality rate has not been quantified.

Expressing the 800,000 statistic in a different way, we can say that healthy, middle-aged males who run for one hour each day can expect to die while running once every 2,192 years (800,000 hours divided by 365 hours of running per year = 2,192 years). By the same token, individuals who run two hours per day should die while running about once every 1,096 years. When the risks are seen in this light, many endurance athletes will consider them acceptably low, especially as the general risk of heart disease is reduced by strenuous training.
Heart deaths are not random events

In addition, when deaths do occur, they are certainly not random providential events. Post-mortem analyses usually reveal that something was wrong with a dead athlete’s heart prior to the race (no surprise there). For example, in the study which led to the death estimate of one per 50,000 marathon entrants, a total of 215,413 runners who competed in either the Marine Corps Marathon from 1976 to 1994 or the Twin Cities Marathon from 1982 to 1994 were monitored. Three of these 215,413 runners died during their races (always after the 15-mile point) and one succumbed shortly after completion of the event. Autopsies revealed that three of the runners actually had atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (narrowing of two or three key coronary vessels), even though they were symptom-free before the races. The fourth victim (also symptom-free before death) had an anatomical defect related to the left main coronary. Thus, marathon racing didn’t destroy these athletes’ hearts as they paced along the streets of Washington or Minneapolis but rather uncovered ‘weak links’ in their cardiac systems which could not stand up to several hours of strenuous, continuous exercise.

This brings us to the issue of screening: could you take a test which might reveal that your heart was vulnerable to trouble during strenuous exercise? The relevant test in this case would, of course, be an exercise stress test, during which an ECG reading is taken as you run at increasing intensities on a treadmill. These ‘exams’ can frequently unmask fat-filled coronary arteries.

Unfortunately, the tests do not have a very high predictive value since as many as 63% of those who ‘fail’ a stress test actually have completely normal cardiovascular systems(9). Furthermore, the rate of such ‘false positives’ among endurance athletes can be 100% (ibid), because the natural thickening of the heart in response to endurance training changes ECG readings!

This high frequency of ‘wrong calls’ is troubling, not only because of the inaccuracies associated with stress testing it reveals but because many of those with false positive results are then subjected to more rigorous and invasive medical procedures, including thallium stress testing (in which a dye is placed in the bloodstream during exercise) or coronary catheterisation (in which a long tube is snaked through blood vessels into the heart). These tests are expensive and not without risk; in fact, coronary catheterisations may be riskier than marathons!

None the less, about 34% of physicians who run the Boston Marathon believe that people should undergo an exercise stress test before beginning a strenuous exercise programme(10). Interestingly enough, though, only about half of these doctors actually permitted stress tests to be performed on themselves before they began training for Boston!
Stress tests carry their own risks

One reason for this ‘do as I say, not as I do’ attitude may be that stress tests themselves are not without risk. The risk of dying during a stress test is a matter for debate, but has been estimated at anything between 1-in-20,000(11) and 1-in-500,000 tests(12). As you can quickly calculate for yourself, if the true stress test death rate happened to be 1-in-25,000 and the true marathon death rate stayed at 1-in-50,000, and if stress testing was used to ‘screen’ marathon entrants, two people would be killed during stress testing for every one athlete potentially saved!

There’s more! The vast majority of individuals who die during or shortly after exercise would have had completely normal stress tests, even if the tests were given the day before they died (13). Some experts believe that stress testing can only detect about 20-25% of the likely victims of sudden, exercise-related death.

None the less, if you have one or more of the known risk factors for coronary disease (obesity, diabetes, cigarette smoking, high total cholesterol, low HDL-cholesterol, high blood pressure, high stress levels, or a family history of heart disease) you may want to talk to your doctor about stress testing. If you happened to be in that 20-25% group, it would be helpful to have your cardiovascular problem detected.
Distance eventers should look for signs of heart trouble

Whether or not you have risk factors for heart disease, if you compete in distance events you should monitor yourself closely for premonitory symptoms of heart trouble. The warning signs we all know about include chest discomfort or squeezing, throat tightness, and pain that radiates into the jaw or left arm. There are other signs of trouble which are less well-known, including unusual fatigue. If you are uncharacteristically tired and are confident that this is not due to an increased training load or a recent infection, don’t ignore it; mention the problem to your doctor and see if you can arrange for a routine physical examination.

In addition, a sudden, unexplained drop-off in performance which is not associated with overtraining could also indicate that something is amiss with your ticker, as could the sudden onset of heart palpitations.

Finally, be particularly wary of chest discomfort of any kind which appears during exercise and then disappears afterwards. Angina often does not express itself as sharp pain; typical symptoms include squeezing sensations in the chest, and feelings of pressure or chest tightness. It is possible that up to 50% of people who have heart attacks while exercising experience a fair number of small warning signals during the days or weeks leading up to the attack – so watch out! As noted US cardiologist Paul Thompson points out, ‘If you think there is something wrong, there usually is, and a physician should be consulted’.

Pheidippides, one of the first endurance athletes in recorded history, dropped dead shortly after his 21-mile, 1,470-yard run from the plain of Marathon to the agora of Athens in 490 BC. True, no autopsy was performed on the Greek messenger, and his death could have been caused by dehydration or an unsettling encounter with the god Pan in the mountains north of Athens (described in some early accounts of this first ‘marathon’). In addition, we don’t know how fit Pheidippides was before his fateful run, which certainly would have delivered a great shock to an untrained cardiovascular system. None the less, it is certain that exertion-related deaths do occur at a low frequency, even in well-trained athletes. The paradox of exercise is that it increases your risk of dying at the same time that it reduces it.

Owen Anderson

References
1. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol 28, pp 428-431, 1996
2. American Journal of Cardiology, vol 87, pp 369-371, 2000
3. American Journal of Cardiology, vol 83, pp 1085-1089, 1999
4. Journal of the American Medical Association, vol 282, p19, 1999
5. American Journal of Cardiology, vol 80, pp 379-380, 1997
6. American Journal of Cardiology, vol 88, pp 920-923, 2001
7. New England Journal of Medicine, vol 311, pp 874-877, 1984
8. Journal of the American Medical Association, vol 247(18), pp 2535-2538, 1982
9. New England Journal of Medicine, vol 293, pp 367-371, 1975
10. The New England Journal of Medicine, vol 301, pp 792-793, 1979
11. Chest, vol 77, pp 94-97, 1980
12. Running Research News, vol 5(6), pp 1, 6-10, November-December 1989
13. The New England Journal of Medicine, vol 321, pp 320-324, 1989

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Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY — bumi2009fans @ 2:03 am

The rise of the MBA entrepreneur

By Mike Taylor

Thu Apr 12, 2012 3:29pm EDT

When Chika Ekeji enrolled in the MIT Sloan School of Business’ full-time MBA program, he was ambivalent about actually finishing his degree. What he was really in school for, he’d decided, was a chance to found his own company.

“I used to joke that I was on the dropout path,” says Mr. Ekeji, who while at Sloan helped develop mobile-phone technology that diagnoses impaired vision and an app that helps researchers find field workers in low-income countries. “As soon as I got the right idea, the right team, I was gone.”

That’s a remarkable attitude for a student at a top-ranked business school, where costs can exceed $85,000 a year. Most MBAs seek steady, jobs in finance or consulting where they can quickly recover their cash and start building wealth. Nevertheless, Mr. Ekeji is part of a rare but growing breed of student: the MBA-entrepreneur who shrugs off anti-MBA snobbery from the entrepreneur community.

According to a survey of administrators, career-services advisors and published reports from top-tier MBA programs, roughly 5% of full-time 2011 business school students founded their own companies right after graduation, with notable jumps at places like Wharton, Stanford and MIT-Sloan. That’s up from around 3% in 2010, and those figures don’t count MBAs who join startups as early employees or found companies in the months following graduation.

Top programs are rallying to establish ways to attract MBA-entrepreneurs, says Rhett Weiss, a veteran entrepreneur who heads up the Entrepreneurship and Innovation Institute at Cornell University’s Johnson School of Management. “Maybe we’re all drinking the same Kool-Aid, but it’s good for us and good for our stakeholders if we understand entrepreneurship and how to promote,” he says.

At Wharton, “We’ve definitely seen an increase” in interest in entrepreneurship, says Maria Halpern, Director of Student Engagement for the school’s career management services. Nowadays, dedicated entrepreneur initiatives are common among top programs, a reflection of increasing need among MBA students.

Even with added institutional support, turning an MBA into a startup means ignoring a common piece of advice offered by many MBA programs‘ career-services departments: Get a high-paying job and postpone the entrepreneurial dream until your loans are paid off.

“Quite frankly, we do encourage students in general to learn on someone else’s nickel before taking the plunge,” says Janet Strimaitis, managing director of the Arthur M. Blank Center for Entrepreneurship at Babson College.

That advice, says Omar Seyal, a 2011 Wharton graduate and founder of near-field communications startup Tagstand, runs “against pretty much everything I would think.”

“That advice is traditional,” says Mr. Ekeji. “And perhaps pragmatic in a way. But I actually believe that if the only thing keeping you from starting a company is paying off your student loans, then you should start your company.” Many students have already sacrificed two years’ salary and taken on debt to complete their programs, so why not just take that one more risk?

If career advisors sometimes act like concerned parents who try to be encouraging, established entrepreneurs can be like sarcastic older siblings. There’s a belief among some outspoken entrepreneurs that an MBA is a waste of time and money, and business-school students are sometimes the butt of jokes on startup blogs and discussion forums.

Brian Spaly, a founder and CEO of Trunk Club, a men’s apparel company, and 2007 Stanford MBA graduate, understands the skepticism. At a company’s early stages, he says, “There’s really only room for a couple people in the company that don’t know what they’re doing. And that’s generally the MBA.” There’s a reason so many MBAs become consultants; they’re well-rounded. What startups really need, says Mr. Spaly, is functional expertise. “Most MBAs aren’t known for that.”

In Silicon Valley, says Mr. Seyal, the entrepreneurial community harbors something of a cultural antipathy toward MBAs. “There’s a little bit of thumbing your nose at them, and I think that’s probably for the worst. … I don’t particularly think there are good reasons why people are looked down upon with an MBA here.”

Mr. Ekeji also disagrees with anti-MBA startup sentiment. The degree is not a waste of time, he says. Entrepreneurs can make things happen while they’re still in school: “With all due respect, you can cut class.”

In contrast with their reception among career advisors and other entrepreneurs, MBA-entrepreneurs say they enjoy tremendous support from their classmates, many of whom want to start their own companies but aren’t quite ready.

While she was at Harvard, Katia Beauchamp’s classmates would come over to her apartment to help pack boxes for her beauty-supply subscription service, Birchbox, which she co-founded with classmate Hayley Barna. They were disappointed, she says, when the company had to exclude them from beta testing to get outside perspectives on what customers would actually need.

“A lot of people don’t pursue a startup right away,” says Mr. Spaly. Five years out of school, he says, “A lot of my classmates are saying, ‘Now I’m ready to do something more entrepreneurial.'”

Economic trends of course influence the paths of MBS students, says Joaquin Villarreal, manager of the Entrepreneurship Initiative at the Tuck School of Business. “You get your 2000 dot-com bubble, everyone wants to be an entrepreneur,” says Villarreal. “That bursts and everyone wants to be a banker.”

“I also think it’s generational,” say Ms. Halpern. It’s worth noting that the millennial generation, known for an overblown sense of self-worth and propensity to dream big, has recently become old enough to be MBA-eligible.

In any case, the entrepreneur MBA students still like to take risks. Davis Smith, a Wharton graduate and cofounder of Brazilian e-commerce site Baby.com.br, says that when he told his entrepreneur peers he and his partner were heading to business school, “Overwhelmingly people just didn’t understand it. They thought we were crazy. As an entrepreneur you’re used to that kind of reaction.”

(Editing by John Peabody)

April 14, 2012

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Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY — bumi2009fans @ 8:39 pm
Tags:

Gempa 6.0 SR Banten Terasa di Jakarta, Depok, dan Bogor
| Reza Wahyudi | Minggu, 15 April 2012 | 03:22 WIB

KOMPAS.com – Gempa bumi berkekuatan 6.0 SR sempat mengguncang wilayah Banten dan sekitarnya pada Minggu (15/4/2012) pukul 2.26 WIB.

Gempa yang berpusat di 95 Km Barat Daya Pandeglang, Banten ini dirasakan di beberapa kota lain, seperti Jakarta dan Depok.

Bahkan, beberapa pengguna Twitter yang berada di Bogor melaporkan merasakan gempa yang terjadi di Pandeglang tersebut.

Di Jakarta, guncangannya terasa cukup kuat selama kurang lebih 20 detik.

Menurut laporan Tribun News, kepanikan sempat terjadi di kantor Kompas TV di Palmerah, Jakarta. Sejumlah karyawannya berhamburan keluar ketika gempa terjadi.

April 12, 2012

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Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 3:33 am

MELBOURNE – Harga emas turun tipis di pasar Asia lantaran rebound yang terjadi di pasar saham AS. Penguatan di pasar saham telah menyurutkan permintaan emas sebagai safe haven.

Kontrak emas untuk pengiriman Juni di Comex-Nymex bergulir ke level 1.659,80 dollar AS per troy ounce pada perdagangan pukul 8.17 waktu Melbourne. Sementara, emas batangan untuk pengantaran segera bergeser ke 1.659,53 dollar AS per troy ounce.

Kemarin, harga si kuning ini turun untuk pertama kalinya dalam empat hari terakhir, seiring berakhirnya koreksi di bursa Wall Street. Emas turun 40 sen ke posisi 1.660,30 dollar AS per troy ounce pukul 1.40 di New York. Adapun, dalam tiga hari sebelumnya, harga emas telah naik sebesar 2,9 persen.

Sebagai catatan, bursa saham AS melaju setelah Alcoa Inc. membuka musim laporan keuangan dengan hasil yang menggembirakan.

“Orang-orang condong ke pasar saham, hari ini. Investor mengalihkan investasinya dari emas ke dalam bentuk saham,” kata Lance Roberts, CEO Streettalk Advisors LLC di Houston.

http://www.tribunnews.com/2012/04/12/harga-emas-turun-investor-beralih-ke-saham

Sumber : TRIBUNNEWS.COM

April 9, 2012

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Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 11:49 pm

April 9, 2012, 2:45 p.m. EDT
Gold rallies as nervousness takes hold
Other metals mixed in wake of jobs report; copper off 2%

By Claudia Assis and Chris Oliver, MarketWatch

SAN FRANCISCO (MarketWatch) — Gold futures ended higher Monday, catching some safe-haven flows after a soft U.S. jobs report Friday and as traders were nervous ahead of a busy week for corporate earnings.

Gold for June delivery GCM2 -0.06% rose $13.80, or 0.9%, to end at $1,643.90 per ounce on the Comex division of the New York Mercantile Exchange.

Some support for gold was coming from investors who may have judged recent losses “overdone,” said Stephen Platt, analyst with Archer Financial Services in Chicago.

Other metals futures were mixed, with some of those more oriented toward industrial production reeling in the wake of the disappointing jobs report.

Silver for May delivery SIK2 +0.29% retreated 21 cents, or 0.7%, to $31.52 an ounce, adding to losses as the session progressed.

May copper HGK2 +0.08% declined 8 cents, or 2%, to $3.72 a pound.

Earnings season has its unofficial kickoff with Alcoa Inc. reporting after the close on Tuesday. The week also brings earnings from heavyweights such as Google Inc. and J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.

The much-expected jobs report on Good Friday showed the U.S. economy created only 120,000 jobs in March, well below market expectations.

Hiring failed to top 200,000 for the first time since November. The unemployment rate fell to its lowest level since January 2009, but only because people dropped out of the labor force.

Overall, the current low interest-rate environment remains positive for gold, but “gold will need to find a firmer footing first,” analysts at Barclays Capital said in a note.

Two key factors to watch in the near term remain holdings in exchange-traded product holdings as well as consumption in India and China, they added.

As U.S. stocks and commodity markets closed in observance of Good Friday, Monday was the first opportunity for investors to react to the disappointing employment data. U.S stocks opened lower and oil traded lower.

Platinum and palladium diverged Monday, with July platinum PLN2 0.00% tracking gold higher, advancing $10.60, or 0.7%, to $1,618.20 an ounce. Palladium for June PAM2 +0.41% declined $1, or 0.2%, to $643.80 an ounce.
Bank of Japan as catalyst?

Some analysts speculated that the Bank of Japan could unveil additional stimulus measures by the conclusion of the central bank’s two-day policy board meeting, which ends on Tuesday.

Societe Generale said on Friday that the Bank of Japan would likely boost its government-bond-purchase program by 5 trillion yen ($60.63 billion) this week, noting that it’s under intense domestic pressure to step up the fight on Japanese deflation. Read more about the Bank of Japan and monetary policy as envisioned by SocGen

Meanwhile, Chinese were active gold buyers at the start of the week as they piled into the inflation hedge. Data released early Monday showed consumer prices in March were up 3.6% on the year.

The inflation figure accelerated from a 3.2% increase in February and was above the 3.3% rate expected by economists polled by Dow Jones Newswires. Read more about Chinese retail-level inflation for March.

Claudia Assis is a San Francisco-based reporter for MarketWatch. Chris Oliver is MarketWatch’s Asia bureau chief, based in Hong Kong.

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