eK0n0mi taK seriU$ d/h ekonomitakserius@blogspot.com

Desember 29, 2011

alamat palsu: demam TIFOID, demam umum lah … 291211

Filed under: Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 2:37 pm

Demam Tifoid
… ini penyakit yang endemik di Indonesia, semua orang Indonesia bisa menderita penyakit umum ini … ini membuktikan bahwa TINGKAT HIGIENIS indon memang MASEH BELUM TINGGI … bukti bahwa proses rantai makanan orang indon maseh lom BERKUALITAS … well, ga terlalu mencemaskan seh …
DEFINISI

Demam Tifoid adalah suatu infeksi yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi.
PENYEBAB

Bakteri Salmonella typhi.

Salmonella typhi

Bakteri tifoid ditemukan di dalam tinja dan air kemih penderita.
Penyebaran bakteri ke dalam makanan atau minuman bisa terjadi akibat pencucian tangan yang kurang bersih setelah buang air besar maupun setelah berkemih.
Lalat bisa menyebarkan bakteri secara langsung dari tinja ke makanan.

Bakteri masuk ke dalam saluran pencernaan dan bisa masuk ke dalam peredaran darah. Hal ini akan diikuti oleh terjadinya peradangan pada usus halus dan usus besar.
Pada kasus yang berat, yang bisa berakibat fatal, jaringan yang terkena bisa mengalami perdarahan dan perforasi (perlubangan).

Sekitar 3% penderita yang terinfeksi oleh Salmonella typhi dan belum mendapatkan pengobatan, di dalam tinjanya akan ditemukan bakteri ini selama lebih dari 1 tahun.
Beberapa dari pembawa bakteri ini tidak menunjukkan gejala-gejala dari demam tifoid.
GEJALA

Biasanya gejala mulai timbul secara bertahap dalam wakatu 8-14 hari setelah terinfeksi.
Gejalanya bisa berupa demam, sakit kepala, nyeri sendi, sakit tenggorokan, sembelit, penurunan nafsu makan dan nyeri perut.
Kadang penderita merasakan nyeri ketika berkemih dan terjadi batuk serta perdarahan dari hidung.

Jika pengobatan tidak dimulai, maka suhu tubuh secara perlahan akan meningkat dalam waktu 2-3 hari, yaitu mencapai 39,4-40?Celsius selama 10-14 hari. Panas mulai turun secara bertahap pada akhir minggu ketiga dan kembali normal pada minggu keempat.
Demam seringkali disertai oleh denyut jantung yang lambat dan kelelahan yang luar biasa.

Pada kasus yang berat bisa terjadi delirium, stupor atau koma.

Pada sekitar 10% penderita timbul sekelompok bintik-bintik kecil berwarna merah muda di dada dan perut pada minggu kedua dan berlangsung selama 2-5 hari.

KOMPLIKASI

Sebagian besar penderita mengalami penyembuhan sempurna, tetapi bisa terjadi komplikasi, terutama pada penderita yang tidak diobati atau bila pengobatannya terlambat:
Banyak penderita yang mengalami perdarahan usus; sekitar 2% mengalami perdarahan hebat.
Biasanya perdarahan terjadi pada minggu ketiga.

Perforasi usus terjadi pada 1-2% penderita dan menyebabkan nyeri perut yang hebat karena isi usus menginfeksi ronga perut (peritonitis).

Pneumonia bisa terjadi pada minggu kedua atau ketiga dan biasanya terjadi akibat infeksi pneumokokus (meskipun bakteri tifoid juga bisa menyebabkan pneumonia).

Infeksi kandung kemih dan hati.

Infeksi darah (bakteremia) kadang menyebabkan terjadinya infeksi tulang (osteomielitis), infeksi katup jantung (endokarditis), infeksi selaput otak (meningitis), infeksi ginjal (glomerulitis) atau infeksi saluran kemih-kelamin.

Pada sekitar 10% kasus yang tidak diobati, gejala-gejala infeksi awal kembali timbul dalam waktu 2 minggu setelah demam mereda.

DIAGNOSA

Diagnosis ditegakkan berdasarkan gejala-gejala dan hasil pemeriksaan fisik.

Untuk memperkuat diagnosis, dilakukan biakan darah, tinja, air kemih atau jaringan tubuh lainnya guna menemukan bakteri penyebabnya.
PENGOBATAN

Dengan antibiotik yang tepat, lebih dari 99% penderita dapat disembuhkan.

Pedoman profesional yang paling terakhir untuk pengobatan demam tifoid di Asia selatan dan Tenggara dikeluarkan oleh Association of Pediatrics (IAP) pada Oktober 2006. Meskipun pedoman ini diterbitkan untuk demam tifoid anak, penulis merasa bahwa mereka juga berlaku untuk kasus-kasus dewasa.

Untuk pengobatan demam tifoid yang tidak berat, IAP merekomendasikan cefixime dan, sebagai agen lini kedua, azitromisin.

Untuk demam tifoid yang berat, mereka merekomendasikan ceftriaxone. Aztreonam dan imipenem adalah lini kedua agen untuk kasus yang berat.

Jika terjadi perforasi usus, diberikan antibiotik berspektrum luas (karena berbagai jenis bakteri akan masuk ke dalam rongga perut) dan mungkin perlu dilakukan pembedahan untuk memperbaiki atau mengangkat bagian usus yang mengalami perforasi.
PENCEGAHAN

Vaksin tifus per-oral (ditelan) memberikan perlindungan sebesar 70%.
Vaksin ini hanya diberikan kepada orang-orang yang telah terpapar oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi dan orang-orang yang memiliki resiko tinggi (termasuk petugas laboratorium dan para pelancong).

Para pelancong sebaiknya menghindari makan sayuran mentah dan makanan lainnya yang disajikan atau disimpan di dalam suhu ruangan.
Sebaiknya mereka memilih makanan yang masih panas atau makanan yang dibekukan, minuman kaleng dan buah berkulit yang bisa dikupas.

Iklan

Desember 28, 2011

alamat palsu: emaaa($1564)aa$ … 291211

Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 10:51 pm

Rabu, 28/12/2011 19:10 WIB
Prospek Harga Emas di Tahun 2012
Nurul Qomariyah – detikFinance

Jakarta – Harga emas mengalami pergerakan yang sangat fluktuatif sepanjang tahun 2011. Meski akhir-akhir ini trend harganya terus turun, namun emas masih menjadi komoditas yang mencetak kenaikan gemilang di 2011.

Rata-rata harga emas di tahun 2011 adalah sekitar US$ 1.569,88 per ounce. Harga terendah terjadi pada 28 Januari di US$ 1.308,25 per ounce, dan puncak harga emas terjadi pada 6 September ketika harga menembus US$ 1.921,15 per ounce.

Jika pada semester I harga emas cukup tenang, tidak demikian pada semester II. Gejolak harga emas semakin menjadi-jadi pada paruh kedua tahun 2011, terutama pada Agustus dan September, dengan harga emas harian sempat turun 7% selama September, meski sempat menguat hingga 4% selama Juli.

Capaian harga emas itu tentu saja lebih tinggi ketimbang rata-rata harga emas tahun 2010 yang sebesar US$ 1.225 per ounce.

Lantas bagaimana proyeksi harga emas di tahun 2012?

Biro Ekonomi Sumber Daya dan Energi Australia memperkirakan harga emas pada tahun 2012 akan meningkat 17% menjadi sekitar US$ 1.850 per ounce. Sementara produksi emas dunia diperkirakan naik 3% didorong kenaikan produksi di Afrika dan Amerika Latin.

“Harga emas diperkirakan didorong oleh tingkat suku bunga yang rendah di AS dan Eropa, perubahan portofolio di neraca sejumlah bank sentral dan berlanjutnya investasi serta permintaan dari konsumen dinegara-negara berkembang,” jelas biro tersebut seperti dikutip dari Sydney Morning Herald, Kamis (29/12/2011).

Dalam catatannya kepada klien pada bulan Desember, kepala pialang emas Goldman Sachs, Zak Dhabalia memperkirakan titik tertinggi bisa dengan mudah terlampui dan akan menjadi tahun kesuksesan ke-12 lagi.

“Kami akan memulai tahun ini dengan posisi yang sedikit lebih rendah. Tantangan pada pasar yang makro seperti permintaan investor dan bank sentral terhadap emas masih memberikan pengaruh,” jelasnya.

“Akan menarik melihat jika peran dari investor institusi akan menjadi lebih relevan ketimbang investor fisik (ritel) yang mendominasi tahun 2011,” tambahnya.

Pada perdagangan Rabu (28/12/2011), harga emas terpantau turun tipis berbarengan dengan turunnya harga logam dan pasar saham. Di pasar spot, harga emas turun 0,5% ke level US$ 1.585,70 per ounce.

(qom/hen)

Gold Posts Longest Slump Since 2009
By Debarati Roy and Maria Kolesnikova – Dec 28, 2011

Gold fell, capping the longest slump since October 2009, and silver tumbled to a three-month low as Europe’s deepening debt crisis drove commodities and stocks lower.

The euro dropped to an 11-month low against the dollar as lending to financial institutions sent the European Central Bank’s balance sheet to a record high. The Standard & Poor’s GSCI index of 24 raw materials and the MSCI World Index of equities were poised for the biggest declines in two weeks. Platinum approached the lowest since November 2009, and palladium dropped almost 3 percent.

The ECB said lending to euro-area banks jumped 214 billion euros ($276.9 billion) to 879 billion in the week ended Dec. 23, bolstering credit to the economy during the fiscal turmoil. Gold has slumped 19 percent from a record $1,923.70 an ounce on Sept. 6, partly on sales to cover losses in other markets. About $10 trillion has been erased from global equities (MXWD) since May.

“What’s going on in Europe is very worrying,” James Dailey, who manages $215 million at TEAM Financial Management LLC in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, said in an e-mail. “The dollar’s strength is working against all commodities, including gold.”

Gold futures for February delivery declined 2 percent to settle at $1,564.10 at 1:47 p.m. on the Comex in New York. The price dropped for the fifth straight session, the longest slide since October 2009. The commodity headed for the first quarterly slump since September 2008.

Silver futures for March delivery fell 5.2 percent to $27.234 an ounce on the Comex. Earlier, the price touched $27.10, the lowest since Sept. 26. The metal has plummeted 45 percent from a 31-year high of $49.845 on April 25.

India, China

Gold imports by India, the biggest consumer, may drop as much as 50 percent this month after the rupee plunged, according to the Bombay Bullion Association. China restricted gold trading in spot and futures contracts to the Shanghai Gold Exchange and the Shanghai Futures Exchange to crack down on illegal buying and selling of commodities.

“Concerns were raised over the sustainability of demand out of China and India,” Marc Ground, an analyst at Standard Bank Plc, said in a report.

Platinum futures for April delivery declined 3.2 percent to $1,392.40 an ounce on the New York Mercantile Exchange. Earlier, the price touched $1,388.60. On Dec. 15, the metal declined to $1,376, the lowest since Nov. 13, 2009.
‘No Surprise’

Palladium futures for March delivery slumped 2.9 percent to $647.15 an ounce on Nymex, the biggest drop since Dec. 14.

This year, gold has advanced 10 percent, heading for the 11th straight annual gain, on demand for an alternative investment amid slumping equities.

“Gold has been one of the best performers this year, so it comes as no surprise that we are seeing some end-of-year profit- taking,” said Ronald Stoeferle, a commodity analyst at Erste Group Bank AG in Vienna.

Before today, the MSCI equity index dropped 7.5 percent this year.

Desember 23, 2011

playboy: susu formula diselidiki … 231211

Filed under: Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 12:26 am

Saham-saham di bursa Wall Street kembali menguat sehingga membawa indeks Standard & Poor’s 500 (S&P) mendekati level break even. Saham Mead Johnson Nutrition tercatat anjlok 7,9% setelah munculnya laporan yang menghubungkan susu formula Enfamil dengan kematian seorang bayi akibat bakteri yang sangat jarang.

AFP melaporkan, raksasa ritel Walmart telah menarik susu formula dari 3.000 outletnya setelah dua bayi di Missouri dilaporkan sakit dan salah satu diantaranya meninggal. Penarikan tetap dilakukan meski pemerintah belum memerintahkan.

Pihak Mead Johnson Nutrition mengatakan pihaknya sedang bekerjasama dengan otoritas kesehatan untuk mendukung upaya mereka mengidentifikasi sumber-sumber infeksi bayi tersebut. Pejabat kesehatan di Missouri telah mengirimkan susu formula tersebut ke laboratorium federal untuk pengujian dan mendesak para orang tua berhati-hati karena prosuk susu formula merupakan produk komersial yang tidak steril.

Sementara saham-saham lain menguat didorong oleh optimisme pasar yang sedikit bertambah dari angka klaim benefit pengangguran yang turun tajam selama pekan lalu ke titik terendahnya dalam 3,5 tahun.

“Satu, angka rendah yang tidak diperkirakan dapat secara mudah santapan, kedua menjadi menarik dan ketika menunjukkan kepada kami sesuatu yang nyata terjadi di pasar perburuhan,” jelas Ian Shepherdson dari High Frequency Economics seperti dikutip dari AFP, Jumat (23/12/2011).

Pada perdagangan Kamis (22/12/2011), indeks Dow Jones industrial average ditutup menguat 61,91 poin (0,51%) ke level 12.169,65. Indeks Standard & Poor’s 500 juga menguat 10,28 poin (0,83%) ke level 1.254,00 dan Nasdaq menguat 2.599,45.

“Ini adalah fakta yang mendukung bahwa perekonomian mendapatkan momentum dan kuartal IV akan lebih baik dari ekspektasi orang sebulan lalu,” jelas Jim McDonald, chief investment strategis Trust Global Investment seperti dikutip dari Reuters.

Saham Bank of America naik 5% sehari setelah sepakat membayar denda US$ 335 juta karena diskriminasi dalam pemberian kredit. Sementara saham Citigroup juga menguat 5,9%.

Namun perdagangan berjalan tipis dengan transaksi di New York Stock Exchange hanya sebesar 5,88 miliar lembar saham, di bawah rata-rata harian yang sebesar 8,47 miliar lembar.

Sumber: detikcom
Baby’s Death Spurs Investigation Into Formula Contamination
By Michelle Fay Cortez and Stephanie Armour – Dec 22, 2011

State and U.S. health officials are racing to find the source of contamination after one newborn died and another became ill from bacteria that may be linked to the use of baby formula.

Regulators are testing samples of powdered formula, along with the water used to prepare the products and the clothes the children wore, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Mead Johnson Nutrition Co. (MJN) plunged 10 percent in New York trading after Wal-Mart Stores Inc. (WMT) pulled its Enfamil Newborn formula from shelves after it was determined the infant who died was given that brand.

The other formula wasn’t identified by health officials. Both infants tested positive for Cronobacter, an environmental bacteria that can cause serious illness or death. If the formula itself is to blame, it would probably spur a national recall, said Siobhan DeLancey, an FDA spokeswoman.

“We are trying to figure out whether it came from the food,” DeLancey said by telephone. “We take these into local labs and test them. We expect first results back next week.”

U.S. health officials probe about four to six such cases a year, she said.

Neither Wal-Mart, based in Bentonville, Arkansas, nor Mead Johnson, in Glenview, Illinois, provided the number of cans pulled from shelves. The number is in the thousands, and about half of Wal-Mart’s stores carry the formula, said Chris Perille, a spokesman for Mead Johnson.
Shares Drop

Mead Johnson fell to $68.76 at 4 p.m. New York time. Wal- Mart fell less than a percent to $59.19.

Customers can return the withdrawn formula for a refund or exchange, said Dianna Gee, a spokeswoman for the world’s biggest retailer. The company had 3,856 stores in the U.S. as of Nov. 30, according to its website.

The Missouri Department of Public Health and Senior Services on Dec. 19 issued a health alert on two babies infected with the bacteria within the last month, according to the agency’s website. The department didn’t say if the second infant, who lived out-of-state but was treated in Missouri, used the Mead Johnson product.

Cronobacter is part of a family of a family of microorganisms called Enterobacter sakazakii that has a fatality rate of 40 percent to 80 percent in infants, according to Marler Clark, a Seattle-based law firm that focuses on foodborne illness litigation.
Purchase at Wal-Mart

The dead child’s family “purchased the formula at a Wal- Mart store, and ‘out of an abundance of caution’ Wal-Mart decided to voluntarily ‘pull & hold’ the same size cans (12.5 oz.) of Enfamil Newborn from the same batch code until the investigation is completed,” said Chris Perille, a spokesman for Mead Johnson, in an e-mailed statement.

The batch consumed by the infant who died tested negative when it was made and packaged, and the results were reconfirmed after the news, he said.

“Outbreaks of this particular bacteria are typically linked to powdered infant formula, but it is unclear at this point where along the chain the contamination occurred or if the formula is the cause altogether,” Edward Aaron, an analyst with RBC Capital Markets in Denver, wrote in a research note today.

Wal-Mart learned of the death Dec. 18, Gee said. The company immediately removed the product from the Lebanon store and the next day notified more than 3,000 stores in 49 states.

Wal-Mart has had “nearly 100 percent compliance” from its stores, she said.
‘Products Could Return’

“Since we knew there was an active investigation by the Missouri Department of Health, we decided it was best to pull the product until the investigation is complete,” Gee wrote in an e-mail. “The products could be returned at a later date.”

While it’s premature for parents to change what they feed their infants, it’s important to remind them to prepare formula properly, said Lorry Rubin, chief of pediatric infectious diseases at Cohen Children’s Medical Center of New York.

Glassware and bottles should be cleaned and sterilized and the water should be boiled and cooled before it is added to powdered formula, he said. Any extra prepared formula should be immediately refrigerated and used within 24 hours, he said.

Bacteria from the Cronobacter family are known to have contaminated infant formula, he said in a telephone interview. The strains are similar to the bacteria humans carry in their gut and typically doesn’t cause significant concern, he said.

“The powder formula isn’t necessarily a sterile product, but taking precautions, even if there is a small amount of bacteria in there, it shouldn’t be enough to harm the baby,” Rubin said. “If you re-warm it or make improperly, the bacteria can multiply and you have a higher risk of getting ill.”
Market Share

The Enfa brands, which include Enfamil, accounted for 79 percent of Mead Johnson’s $3.14 billion in 2010 revenue, and were the world’s lead brand franchise in pediatric nutrition based on retail sales, the company said in a February filing. About 12 percent of Mead Johnson’s sales come from Wal-Mart, according to data compiled by Bloomberg.

Several cases of foodborne illness from infant formula are reported each year to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lola Scott Russell, a spokeswoman, said in an e- mail.

Last year, Abbott Laboratories recalled Similac-brand powder infant formulas distributed in the U.S., Puerto Rico, Guam and some Caribbean nations because of possible insect contamination.

Desember 21, 2011

playboy: asma dikaitkan dengan PARASETAMOL … 221211

Filed under: Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 7:16 pm

Studies Suggest an Acetaminophen-Asthma Link
By CHRISTIE ASCHWANDEN
Published: December 19, 2011

Health Guide: Asthma in Children

Acetaminophen increases the risk of childhood asthma.

THE INVESTIGATOR

Dr. John T. McBride, Akron

Children’s Hospital.

The sharp worldwide increase in childhood asthma over the past 30 years has long perplexed researchers, who have considered explanations as varied as improved hygiene and immunizations. Over the last decade, however, a new idea has emerged.

The asthma epidemic accelerated in the 1980s, some researchers have noted, about the same time that aspirin was linked to Reye’s syndrome in children. Doctors stopped giving aspirin to children with fevers, opting instead for acetaminophen. In a paper published in The Annals of Allergy and Asthma Immunology in 1998, Dr. Arthur Varner, then a fellow in the immunology training program at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, argued that the switch to acetaminophen might have fueled the increase in asthma.

Since then, more than 20 studies have produced results in support of his theory, including a large analysis of data on more than 200,000 children that found an increased risk of asthma among children who had taken acetaminophen. In November, Dr. John T. McBride, a pediatrician at Akron Children’s Hospital in Ohio, published a paper in the journal Pediatrics arguing that the evidence for a link between acetaminophen and asthma is now strong enough for doctors to recommend that infants and children who have asthma (or are at risk for the disease) avoid acetaminophen.

Dr. McBride based his assertion on several lines of evidence. In addition to the timing of the asthma epidemic, he said, there is now a plausible explanation for how acetaminophen might provoke or worsen asthma, a chronic inflammatory condition of the lungs. Even a single dose of acetaminophen can reduce the body’s levels of glutathione, a peptide that helps repair oxidative damage that can drive inflammation in the airways, researchers have found.

“Almost every study that’s looked for it has found a dose-response relationship between acetaminophen use and asthma,” Dr. McBride said. “The association is incredibly consistent across age, geography and culture.”

A statistical link between acetaminophen and asthma has turned up in studies of infants, children and adults. Studies have also found an increased risk of asthma in children whose mothers who took acetaminophen during pregnancy.

For instance, a study published in The Lancet in 2008 examined information collected on more than 205,000 children from 31 countries as part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, known as the Isaac study. The 2008 analysis found that children who had taken acetaminophen for a fever during the first year of life had a 50 percent greater risk of developing asthma symptoms, compared with children who had not taken the drug. The risk rose with increasing use — children who had taken acetaminophen at least once a month had a threefold increase in the risk of asthma symptoms.

A study published by British researchers in 2000 using data from the Isaac study found that the prevalence of asthma increased in lock step with sales of acetaminophen in the 36 countries examined. The more acetaminophen used in a country, the greater that country’s prevalence of asthma.

A meta-analysis published in 2009 calculated that children who had taken acetaminophen in the past year had nearly double the risk of wheezing compared with those who had not taken the drug. “We know that acetaminophen can cause increased bronchial constriction and wheezing,” said Mahyar Etminan, a pharmacoepidemiologist at the University of British Columbia and lead author of the study.

Still, Dr. Etminan believes it is not yet clear that acetaminophen itself is responsible for the increasing prevalence of asthma. “Children who take acetaminophen are usually getting it for fever control, and they get fevers because they have viral infections, which on their own are associated with developing asthma later in life,” Dr. Etminan said. “It’s hard to tease out whether it’s the drug or the viral infection.”

Another potential problem, Mr. Etminan said, is that many of the studies required parents to accurately recall how much acetaminophen they gave their children, and how often. Parents whose children have asthma are likely to scrutinize the events that preceded an attack, he said, and thus may be more likely than other parents to recall giving their children the drug.

So far, only one randomized controlled trial has investigated the link. Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine randomly assigned 1,879 children with asthma to take either acetaminophen or ibuprofen if they developed a fever. The results, published in 2002, showed that children who took acetaminophen to treat a fever were more than twice as likely to seek a doctor’s care later for asthma symptoms as those who took ibuprofen.

Other trials are in the works. Dr. Richard Beasley, a professor of medicine at the Medical Research Institute of New Zealand, is just completing a 12-week randomized controlled trial of acetaminophen to see if the drug provokes or worsens asthma in adults. The results of that trial will be completed next year. Dr. Beasley said the highest priority now should be rigorous trials to test whether acetaminophen use in infancy increases the risk of developing asthma.

“I cannot say with 100 percent certainty that acetaminophen makes asthma worse, but I can say that if I had a child with asthma, I would give him or her ibuprofen for the time being,” Dr. McBride said. “I think the burden of proof is now to show that it’s safe.”

Not all experts agree. “At this time I just don’t feel you can recommend one over the other,” said Dr. Stanley Szefler, head of pediatric clinical pharmacology at National Jewish Health in Denver. “They both have advantages and disadvantages.”

Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including ibuprofen, are known to provoke asthma attacks in some people, Dr. Beasley noted. He suggested a middle course for parents: Simply use acetaminophen (also known as paracetamol) more sparingly. “We should be reserving paracetamol for very high fevers or for major pain relief,” he said. “We know that paracetamol is used much more widely than that — when a child is a bit irritable or teething or having an immunization.”

Acetaminophen has been shown to reduce the antibody response to immunizations, so the drug should not be given to children in advance of a vaccination, Dr. Beasley also noted.

Dr. Szefler and his colleagues are working on a study looking at early interventions for asthma that will also track asthma patterns in children who take either acetaminophen or ibuprofen for fevers. The data will not answer all the questions, Dr. Szefler said, but they should provide more guidance for parents and pediatricians.

Dr. McBride, for one, is not waiting for results. “If studies prove that acetaminophen makes asthma worse,” he said, “I can’t imagine telling my patients that I knew about this five years ago, but I wasn’t sure so I didn’t mention it.”

This article has been revised to reflect the following correction:

Correction: December 21, 2011

An earlier version of this article, using information provided by a researcher, described glutathione incorrectly. It is a peptide, not an enzyme.

Desember 16, 2011

playboy: emaaa($1571)aa$ … 161211

Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 2:16 am

Harga Emas Naik Tipis
Eny Prihtiyani | Marcus Suprihadi | Jumat, 16 Desember 2011 | 08:51 WIB

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com- Setelah turun selama tiga hari berturut-turut, pada perdagangan di bursa Nymex Jumat dini hari tadi (16/12/2011), harga emas mengalami peningkatan tipis. Harga emas rebound setelah selama tiga hari berturut-turut sebelumnya mengalami penurunan cukup besar.

Harga emas berjangka Nymex untuk kontrak Januari 2012 mengalami penurunan sebesar 9,70 dolar AS dan ditutup pada posisi 1.577,20 dolar AS per troy ons (31.1 gram). Sedangkan harga emas spot mengalami penurunan tipis sebesar 0,2 persen dan berakhir pada posisi 1.571, 00 dolar AS per troy ons.

Selama satu bulan terakhir harga emas telah mengalami penurunan sebesar 9 persen. Kekhawatiran mengenai kondisi ekonomi Eropa masih mengakibatkan pasar was-was terhadap pergerakan harga logam mulia ini.
Sumber :
AFP

Desember 14, 2011

playboy: emaaa($1665)aa$ … 141211

Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 2:15 am

Hingga akhir 2011, harga emas diprediksi konsolidasi . Jika tembus support US$1.600 per troy ounce, emas bakal susah mencetak rekor tertingginya dalam sejarah pada 2012.

Pada perdagangan Jumat (9/12), emas ditutup di level US$1.710 per troy ounce dan pada Senin (12/12), harga emas ditutup di level US$1.665. Artinya, emas turun US$45 (2,6%) dalam sehari dan hingga Selasa (13/12) siang, penurunan emas bertambah sebesar US$13,07 (0,78%) ke level US$ 1.653,41 per troy ounce.

Harga emas juga mengalami pelemahan terbesarnya dalam tiga bulan terakhir. Seperti dikutip dari Reuters, Selasa (13/12), harga emas anjlok terdalam sejak Oktober 2011 ke posisi US$1,657,04 per troy ounce.

Kepala Riset Monex Invstindo Futures Ariston Tjendra mengatakan, dilihat dari chart-nya, harga emas masih konsolidasi. Hanya saja, menurut dia, konsolidasi tersebut melebar. Saat ini, level support US$1.600 menjadi patokan dan menjadi support kunci. Sementara itu, level resistance emas pertama hingga akhir 2011 berada di level US$1.720 per troy ounce.

Karena itu, hingga akhir tahun, emas akan konsolidasi dalam rentang US$1.600-1.720 per troy ounce. “Konsolidasi emas, masih dipicu oleh soal krisis utang di Eropa di mana pasar khawatir Uni Eropa tidak bisa mencegah krisis utang semakin membesar sehingga berdampak buruk ke zona lain di luar Eropa,” katanya kepada INILAH.COM, di Jakarta, Selasa (13/12).

Apalagi, lanjut Ariston, beberapa lembaga pemeringkat kembali meninjau peringkat utang negara-negara di kawasan itu baik Moody’s Investor Service dan Fitch Rating. Sebelumnya, Standard and Poor’s Rating Service telah mengancam untuk down grade 15 negara Uni Eropa. “Ketidakpastian inilah yang membuat orang lebih berburu dolar AS dibandingkan emas sebagai safe haven,” ujar Ariston.

Dia menegaskan, isu perburuan dolar AS ini, belum akan hilang sampai akhir 2011 sehingga emas konsolidasi. Lebih jauh ia menjelaskan, kondisi saat ini seperti krisis 2008 di mana ketidakpastian ekonomi membuat orang melirik dolar AS terlebih dahulu sebagai safe haven terutama US Treasury dengan tenor 10-30 tahun.

“Jika situasi krisis utang Eurozone mereda, investor baru akan beralih ke aset safe haven yang kedua yakni emas,” paparnya. Menurutnya, jika dilihat dari pergerakan harga selama ini, emas menjadi alternatif safe haven kedua setelah dolar AS.

Pada Rabu (14/12) dini hari, Bank Sentral AS The Fed mengagendakan, The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). Menurutnya, jika Fed membuka isu tentang Quantitative Easing (QE) tahap ketiga, emas bisa mengalami penguatan tipis ke level US$1.666. “Jika ada sinyal QE akan digulirkan dalam waktu dekat, dolar AS akan melemah dan emas akan terbantu menguat,” imbuhnya.

Jika tidak, emas berpotensi melemah ke level support terdekat di level US$1.620. Ariston memaparkan, sejak emas mencapai level tertingginya sepanjang sejarah pada level US$1.920 pada September 2011, emas tidak membuat pola lower-high. “Artinya, emas memiliki bearish pressure sejak mencapai level tertingginya itu,” ucap dia.

Di atas semua itu, bagi investor online trading, tidak perlua wait and see. Baik menguat maupun melemah bisa mengambil posisi. Sebab, emas lebih likuid dibandingkan saham. “Emas bisa jual dan beli tanpa menunggu antrian,” timpalnya.

Tapi, bagi investor yang konsepnya beli, direkomendasikan buy on dips mendekati level US$1.600 per troy ounce. “Bagi yang mau merealisasikan keuntungan, bisa dilakukan di level US$1.660 per troy ounce,” kata Ariston.

Namun demikian, Ariston menegaskan, level US$1.600 menjadi support kunci. Jika hingga akhir 2011, turun ke bawah level itu, emas akan sulit kembali cetak level tertingginya sepanjang sejarah melebihi level tertinggi 2011 di level US$1.920 per troy ounce. Meskipun, dilihat dari historical record-nya, emas mencapai rata-rata kenaikan 20% setiap tahunnya. “Tapi, untuk 2012 belum tentu terjadi,” imbuhnya.

http://ekonomi.inilah.com/read/detail/1807404/krisis-eropa-biang-kerok-emas-konsolidasi

Sumber : INILAH.COM

Desember 12, 2011

playboy: penakluK infla$1 … 121211

Filed under: Investasi Umum — bumi2009fans @ 3:38 pm

Emas dan Saham Kalahkan Inflasi
Anastasia Joice | Robert Adhi Ksp | Senin, 12 Desember 2011 | 20:27 WIB

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com – Pada tahun 2012, strategi investasi apa yang dapat dilakukan para investor ?

Ekonom dan Direktur Hubungan Investor Bahana TCW Budi Hikmat pada risetnya yang dipublikasikan di Jakarta, Senin (12/12/2011) mengungkapkan beberapa kiatnya.

Selain menghindari kehilangan pokok investasi (capital preservation), pertimbangan utama berinvestasi adalah mengalahkan inflasi. Pasalnya inflasi menggerus daya beli yang secara efektif mengurangi kemakmuran. Berdasarkan kedua pertimbangan ini, baik emas dan saham terbukti dapat mengalahkan inflasi.

“Selama lima tahun terakhir, kinerja emas dapat menyeimbangi saham. Hal ini sangat terkait kelebihan likuiditas yang tidak hanya menyebabkan pelemahan dollar dan inflasi sebagai faktor tradisional yang mendorong harga emas. Namun, kelebihan itu telah menurunkan bunga yang menyebabkan biaya penyimpanan emas menurun drastis,” ujarnya.

Kenaikan harga emas juga diduga sebagai akibat tindakan bank sentral negara berkembang yang melakukan diversifikasi cadangan devisa dengan mengurangi dollar. Dengan kenaikan harga emas yang cukup tinggi, prospek harga emas sangat tergantung apakah bakal terjadi kelebihan likuiditas.

“Kami duga the Fed akan lebih berhati-hati menggelontorkan likuiditas akibat sudah tingginya pertumbuhan uang beredar. Sementara itu kebutuhan likuiditas untuk re-financing utang bakal membuat suku bunga internasional bergerak naik,” katanya.

Dengan pertimbangan ini, emas memiliki lebih banyak pesaing. Namun berdasarkan pertimbangan capital preservation and inflation protection, persoalannya bukan masalah “emas atau saham” melainkan “emas dan saham”.

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