eK0n0mi taK seriU$ d/h ekonomitakserius@blogspot.com

Mei 7, 2011

I heart you: UANG bisa UBAH sifat… 070511

Filed under: Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 5:20 am

Sabtu, 07/05/2011 09:09 WIB
Jadilah Orang Terbuka Jika Ingin Bahagia
Vera Farah Bararah – detikHealth

Jakarta, Beberapa orang kadang memiliki sifat lebih terbuka pada orang lain (ekstrovert), meskipun ada juga yang tertutup (introvert). Ternyata sifat terbuka ini bisa memberikan keuntungan. Studi menunjukkan orang ekstrovert lebih bahagia dibanding introvert.

Para peneliti melaporkan orang yang ekstrovert adalah tipe kepribadian yang ceria, hal ini karena ia mengingat masa lalu dalam cahaya atau ruang lingkup yang lebih positif daripada jenis kepribadian lainnya.

Hal tersebut juga menjelaskan adanya kesenjangan kebahagiaan antara orang ekstrovert dengan orang-orang yang neurotic yang memiliki ciri kepribadian kecemasan dan mudah tersinggung. Hasil penelitian ini telah dilaporkan dalam jurnal Personality and Individual Differences.

“Kami menemukan bahwa orang yang sangat ekstrovert akan lebih bahagia dengan kehidupannya karena mereka cenderung memiliki pandangan positif dan cenderung kurang memiliki pikiran negatif dan penyesalan,” ujar peneliti Ryan Howell, psikolog dari San Francisco State University, seperti dikutip dari Foxnews, Jumat (6/5/2011).

Howell menuturkan orang dengan skala neurotic tinggi pada dasarnya memiliki pandangan kebalikan dari masa lalu sehingga hasilnya ia menjadi kurang bahagia. Sedangkan orang yang ekstrovert memiliki tingkat energi yang tinggi dan cenderung mudah bersosialisasi dengan orang lain.

Fakta yang ada menunjukkan memiliki pandangan hidup yang lebih positif dan kurangnya pandangan negatif dari masa lalu membuat orang ekstrovert 45 persen lebih bahagia dan memiliki kepuasan hidup yang lebih besar.

Orang yang ekstrovert cenderung lebih optimis memandang hidup, dan tidak mau menyimpan kekesalan atau perasaan tidak nyamannya sehingga mengurangi tingkat stres di dalam tubuh orang tersebut.

“Mengubah kepribadian seseorang memang sulit, tapi seseorang mungkin bisa mengubah pandangannya sehingga dapat meningkatkan rasa bahagia tentang hidup dan membantu optimis,” ujar Howell.

Dalam studi sebelumnya diketahui bahwa kepribadian seseorang sebenarnya bisa diubah secara halus tapi kritis. Hal ini karena kepribadian seseorang dipengaruhi oleh banyak hal seperti agama, lingkungan dan uang.


Is Our Definition of “Happiness” Extrovert-centric?

By Sophia Dembling
Created Sep 18 2010 – 4:12pm

The body of research connecting extroversion and happiness kinda bums me out. One study out of Wake Forest University even tells us that people are happier, including introverts, when we act like extroverts.
For this research, subjects completed a standard measure of the Big Five personality traits. Introversion was measured in relation to extroversion; people who measured high in extroversion are assumed to measure low in introversion.

Then researchers conducted several studies in which subjects, at various intervals–every three hours in one study, once a week in another–recorded on a seven-point scale how extroverted they were behaving and how happy they felt.

What the researchers found is that even people who measure low in extroversion are happier when they are behaving extroverted.

I called lead researcher, psychologist William Fleeson, to talk about this. First we defined our terms.

“There are different definitions of extroversion out there,” Fleeson said. “The one that has the most evidence supporting it is how much you are the ways that are described by certain words.”

None of Jung’s energy-in, energy-out stuff for this research. Rather, Fleeson had subjects rate their behavior with words that are consistently used to describe extroversion: talkative, enthusiastic, assertive, bold, energetic, adventurous.

The research also used a specific set of words to describe happiness–or, more specifically, positive affect: excited, enthusiastic, proud, alert, interested, strong, inspired, determined, attentive, active.

I don’t pretend to be a scientist, I’m a writer. So excuse me if it seems like a dip into the shallow end of the psychology pool when I ask: Are these extrovert-centric words for happiness? Should we also include more introvert-centric words such as peaceful, content, engaged?

Do semantics count in our pursuit of happiness?

For his research, Fleeson drew on a three-component model of happiness, using just one of the three components: Positive affect. That’s the happy other people can see and hear, and it is strongly related to extroversion. The second leg of the stool is life satisfaction, which is more cognitive than emotional: Even if you’re not feeling great at the moment, you know your life is pretty good all around. (Introverts have a little bit less of that kind of happiness than extroverts. We think too much, right?)

The third component of happiness is absence of negative affect–not having anxiety, fear, anger, frustration. “And the opposite of that is feeling at peace, at ease,” Fleeson explained.

At peace, at ease. Those also sound introvert-ish to me.

So one could argue that introvert happiness here is being described as a sort of negative space. Feeling peaceful is not positive affect, it is the lack of negative affect.

Is that right?

Is peace the absence of anxiety? Is introversion the lack of extroversion? Or does introversion take up its own space in the world?

Of course, Fleeson points out, positive affect does not preclude peace and calm. We can all have both. And I have no argument with the conclusion that if you want to feel a particular kind of happy-doodle energetic happiness, you can get there by being outgoing, enthusiastic, and talkative. William James proposed essentially the same thing: Emotion follows behavior.

“Introverts already act extroverted. You can do what you do already and you will have more positive affect most of the time,” Fleeson says.

This is a tool many of us use in our daily life. If nothing else, acting extroverted means people won’t annoy us by asking if we’re OK. (Because, of course, anyone who is not acting extroverted must not be happy.) Whether and how often you want to feel that particular kind of happy is a up to you; it’s a philosophical question. Should life be one long Mountain Dew commercial? If it isn’t, does that mean you are not happy?

Oh, and whether introverts pay a price for behaving like extroverts is research for another day. Fleeson didn’t explore the energy cost for introverts behaving extroverted, although he personally understands the need to crawl into a dark room after a stretch of interaction.

But he did say that when he had subjects sit at a table and assigned them to act either introverted or extroverted for ten minutes at a time, the subjects who got most exhausted by the task were extroverts who had to behave introverted.

Maybe extroversion is a force so strong that suppressing it is exhausting. Or maybe introversion generates energy of its own, so intense it wears extroverts out.

Why Extroverts Are the Happiest People
Stephanie Pappas, LiveScience Senior WriterDate: 03 May 2011 Time: 02:54 PM ET

Extroverts are the cheeriest personality type, and a new study finds that the root of their happiness may be in their memories.

People who are extroverted remember the past in a more positive light than other personality types, researchers report in the June issue of the journal Personality and Individual Differences. This rose-tinged viewpoint explains much of the happiness gap between extroverts and people who are neurotic, a personality trait marked by anxiety and irritability.

“We found that highly extroverted people are happier with their lives because they tend to hold a positive, nostalgic view of the past and are less likely to have negative thoughts and regrets,” study researcher Ryan Howell, a psychologist at San Francisco State University, said in a statement. “People high on the neurotic scale essentially have the exact opposite view of the past and are less happy as a result.” [Read: Happiness Falling as Recession’s Psychological Toll Continues]

Knowing your Personality http://www.personalitybook.comMost detailed Personality Assessment on the InternetJung, Darwin of the Mind http://www.jungdarwinbook.comCarl Jung and the modern evolutionary synthesis.Study Design Australia? Raffles-IAO.com/AdmissionsBe Our Next Award Winning Designer! Join Raffles Design College Sydney.Ads by Google
Howell and his co-author asked 754 undergraduate students to complete a series of questionnaires on personality, life satisfaction and personal memories online. They found that those who were extroverted — a personality trait defined by high energy and the tendency to seek the company of others — were most likely to recall good things from the past and downplay the bad.

In fact, having a more positive and less negative view of the past explained 45 percent of the link between extroversion and greater life satisfaction. For neurotic types, a more negative and less positive view of the past explained half of the link between their personality type and happiness level.

It’s tough to change your personality, but the find is good news for those who’d like to feel happier about life, Howell said. Savoring happy memories or recasting sad ones in an optimistic light could help, he said: “You may be able to alter your view of time and boost your happiness.”

Past research has varied on whether a person’s personality can change, with one study suggesting while a person may not be able to transform from a neurotic to an extrovert, we can change subtle, yet critical, aspects of personality. Another recent study suggests our personality is set by first grade.

And as is hinted in this study, personality can’t explain 100 percent of our happiness. Though a complex topic, scientists are finding everything from religion to money to residence can impact happiness levels.


1 Komentar »

  1. […] … MAU BAHAGIA, selaen punya uang dan bisa maen saham, juga sebaeknya punya sifat atawa memiliki ciri mirip sifat ini : LEBE BERBAHAGIA … […]

    Ping balik oleh PROSES yang ENJOYABLE, PROFITABLE | Jl. MAEN SAHAM (read: Stock Trading St.) — Mei 7, 2011 @ 5:28 am | Balas

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