eK0n0mi taK seriU$ d/h ekonomitakserius@blogspot.com

Juni 30, 2010

geregetan: EMA$ i$ a mU$+ (704) … 010710

Filed under: EMAS or GOLD...ce'ileh... — bumi2009fans @ 12:39 am

NEW YORK (Bloomberg): Emas naik, melampaui perolehan kuartalan terbesar dalam 2 tahun lebih seiring dengan perkembangan pasar tenaga kerja AS dan tersendatnya pemulihan ekonomi yang memicu permintaan emas sebagai penyimpan nilai.

Gubernur Federal Reserve Bank Atlanta Dennis Lockhart mengatakan ekonomi AS yang tengah rebound dari resesi terburuk sejak tahun 1930-an, kini menghadapi risiko dari krisis utang Eropa. Sejumlah perusahaan mempekerjakan lebih sedikit karyawan pada Juni.

Sementara itu, harga emas melambung 12% selama kuartal II, kenaikan tertinggi sejak kuartal III-2007.

“Semakin parahnya krisis utang di dunia Barat dan kekhawatiran atas pertumbuhan ekonomi memberikan sokongan yang kuat terhadap emas,” jelas Filip Petersson, analis komoditas SEB AB Swedia.

Emas berjangka untuk pengiriman Agustus naik US$3,50 atau 0,3% menjadi US$1.245,90 per ounce di Comex, New York. Logam mulia ini naik 2,5% pada Juni dan melonjak 14% sepanjang tahun ini.

Harga emas mencapai rekor US$1.266,50 pada 21 Juni dan juga menanjak ke level tinggi bulan ini dalam mata uang euro, pundsterling Inggris, dan franc Swiss.

“Setiap bank di seluruh dunia kini tengah mencetak uang guna membantu menstimulasi perekonomian. Emas bisa mencapai US$1.300 akhir tahun ini terkait naiknya permintaan untuk lindung nilai terhadap tingginya laju inflasi,” kata Michael K. Smith, seorang direktur utama T&K Futures & Options di Port St. Lucie, Florida.

Perak berjangka untuk pengiriman September menanjak 0,4% menjadi US$18,708 per ounce. Pada kuartal ini, perak telah naik 6,7% yang menandai kenaikan keenam berturut-turut dan merupakan reli terpanjang sejak akhir tahun 1979.

Sumber : BISNIS.COM
Rabu, 30/06/2010 06:52:46 WIB
Emas berlanjut naik capai US$1.242,40
Oleh: Bloomberg
SEATTLE (Bloomberg): Harga emas naik untuk ketiga kalinya dalam empat sesi perdagangan di tengah menurunnya tingkat kepercayaan konsumen AS dan melambatnya pertumbuhan ekonomi China, yang memicu permintaan untuk logam mulia.

Indeks tingkat kepercayaan konsumen pada Juni turun lebih besar dari estimasi analis dan indeks ekonomi China selama April juga mengalami peningkatan yang rendah dalam 5 bulan terakhir. Saham global dan hampir seluruh barang komoditas mengalami penurunan.

“Emas sangat terpengaruh atas kekhawatiran investor tentang ekonomi. Jika situasi ekonomi memburuk, harga akan naik karena para investor akan menggeser uang dari obligasi menjadi emas,” kata Jeffrey M. Kristen, managing director BPT Group, dalam wawancara di New York.

Emas berjangka untuk pengiriman Agustus naik US$3,80 atau 0,3% menjadi US$1.242,40 di Comex, New York. Pada sesi awal perdagangan emas sempat turun sebesar 0,9%.

Sepanjang tahun ini, emas naik sebesar 13%, mencapai rekor seharga US$1.266,50 pada 21 Juni. Permintaan dipicu oleh kondisi krisis utang Eropa. Bulan ini, logam mulia mencapai level tertinggi sepanjang masa dalam mata uang euro, poundsterling, dan franc Swiss.

“Dengan meningkatnya kekhawatiran atas pertumbuhan China yang melambat dan krisis utang Uni Eropa, kami berharap minat beli investor yang tinggi dapat memberikan dukungan lebih lanjut,”kata James Moore, seorang analis di TheBullionDesk.com London.

Perak berjangka untuk pengiriman September turun 0,4% menjadi US$18.625 per ounce.(t03/yn)

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Juni 28, 2010

geregetan : jalur khusus di jalan umum : 280610

Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY — bumi2009fans @ 12:13 am

… menurut gw sudah seharusnya ada jalur-jalur khusus di jalan umum, karena kereta api sudah mempunyai jalurnya sendiri, transjakarta juga dengan busway, di jalan protokol ada jalur lambat sejak dulu untuk sepeda motor, maka sekarang buat lah jalur2 khusus baru demi keamanan dan kenyamanan berlalulintas:
– khusus sepeda
– khusus sepeda motor
– khusus pejalan kaki
– khusus truk
– khusus kendaraan umum
– khusus kawasan terbatas (3 in 1)
… semoga terjadi

Juni 27, 2010

geregetan: saat ekspansif berubah … 280610

Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY — bumi2009fans @ 11:12 pm

Senin, 28/06/2010
Kebijakan setengah hati
Konferensi para pemimpin negara dari kelompok 20 atau lazim disebut G-20, seperti diduga banyak kalangan, tidak melahirkan konsensus konkret yang berpengharapan, karena lebih fokus pada konsolidasi fiskal, terutama terhadap pengurangan defisit anggaran.

Isu lain yang menjadi konsensus adalah pengurangan kesenjangan kesejahteraan dalam G-20, seperti Amerika Serikat dengan pendapatan per kapita di atas US$40.000 per tahun, dan India yang masih berputar di kisaran US$3.000 per tahun.

Tidak terlihat sebuah konsensus kebijakan yang mengesankan. Padahal banyak harapan ditumpukan kepada kehadiran G-20, kelompok elite dunia dengan pengaruh kebijakan ekonomi yang luas, mulai dari kawasan Eropa, Amerika, hingga Asia Pasifik.

Tentu, kehadiran forum itu diharapkan mampu mengevaluasi arsitektur ekonomi global, sekaligus perbaikan tata kelola perekonomian, terutama sistem finansial global, yang selama ini gagal diletakkan oleh lembaga resmi seperti Bank Dunia dan Dana Moneter Internasional.

Apalagi, perekonomian dunia nyaris mengalami episode jatuh bangun hampir setiap dekade, dengan persoalan dan penyebab yang hampir sama, yakni arus modal di sektor finansial yang berjalan seperti roaller coaster, kerap eksesif, dan tak jarang out of control dari jangkauan otoritas lokal, regional, apalagi global.

Krisis finansial Asia 1997/ 1998 yang kemudian memicu krisis global, lalu krisis subprime mortgage di Amerika yang memicu krisis global pada 2008, dan baru-baru ini krisis fiskal Yunani yang menyebar ke seantero Eropa, adalah contoh konkret betapa semua otoritas kalang kabut menghadapi gejolak ekonomi yang tak terkendali semacam itu.

Sayangnya, G-20 hanya menjawab isu tersebut dengan konsolidasi fiskal, seperti pembatasan dan pengurangan defisit, yang jika serta-merta diterapkan justru mengekang ekspansi perekonomian yang berbasis pada pertumbuhan ekonomi riil pada jangka panjang.

Konsensus semacam itu lebih menunjukkan sikap G-20 yang reaktif terhadap krisis Yunani ketimbang pemikiran proaktif dengan jangkauan lebih luas ke seantero perekonomian dunia.

Sekadar contoh, wacana mengenai pengetatan regulasi di sektor finansial, misalnya, luput dari perhatian. Padahal, dunia butuh rambu-rambu yang lebih jelas dalam tata kelola aliran modal, khususnya terhadap apa yang disebut kalangan investor sebagai hot money. Jumpalitan perekonomian negara dan dunia, pemicu utamanya kerap justru adalah hilir mudik hot money yang sulit dikendalikan.

Selain itu, G-20 juga lalai mengemas konsensus kebijakan untuk mendorong arus investasi dan perdagangan yang lebih produktif, adil dan bertanggung jawab-mungkin beralasan sudah ada forum Organisasi Perdagangan Dunia (WTO) atau forum resmi lain yang lebih tepat. Padahal, di sektor riil inilah tantangan sesungguhnya yang dihadapi banyak negara, ketimbang sekadar mengutak-atik konsensus kebijakan fiskal dan moneter yang setengah-setengah dan mandul.
Senin, 28/06/2010
KANAL
Australia fokus bangun ekonomi

MELBOURNE: Pemerintah Australia di bawah kepemimpinan PM baru Julia Gillard akan tetap fokus pada pertumbuhan ekonomi di samping mempertahankan tingkat pengangguran yang rendah.

Menkeu Australia Wayne Swan mengatakan pemangkasan pajak pendapatan pribadi yang akan berlaku Juli diharapkan dapat mendongkrak pertumbuhan. Dalam kesempatan terpisah, Gillard mengatakan dirinya berencana memperlambat pertumbuhan populasi Australia akibat kekhawatiran mengenai kurangnya infrastruktur dan lingkungan hidup di negara itu. (Bloomberg/NOM)

geregetan: rahasia $uk$e$ tim jerman … 270610

Filed under: GLOBAL ECONOMY — bumi2009fans @ 4:30 pm

National Teams
Talent promotion at peak

DFB talent promotion celebrates third European title

They are few and far between, for every generation two or three come down the road. If we are very lucky, maybe a handful. Puskas. Maradona. Messi. Both of the Ronaldos. The talk is about those players whose deeds on the pitch give us goosebumps, whose movements with the ball defy what we consider possible. Those who did not acquire their skills but were born a football player. Not technique, but grace.

Obviously, Pelé belonged to that category. Born in Bauru, a small Brazilian village, he was 15 years old when he made the team of FC Santos. Soon, the entire country was thrilled about the wunderkind. Barely 17 years old, he gave his debut on the world’s stage at the 1958 World Cup, won by Brazil, as we all know.

Pelé never fit into any programme, no coach could squeeze his play into a narrow tactical scheme. Pelé was just Pelé – his talent not facilitated by any football federation’s carefully designed programme. He hit (football) earth like an asteroid coming out of nowhere.

But for every Pelé, there are thousands other very talented young players. International football simply depends on a systematic talent search and promotion. Young players need certain conditions to mature into a very thin elite competing in the top leagues and international teams.

Talent promotion as a core duty

Talent identification and promotion belongs to the shortlist of core duties for the German Football Association, is an essential part of the mission the German Football Association (DFB) has set itself. Neither its grassroots efforts, nor the many social activities would be possible (let alone financed) without the successes of the elite, most of all the German men’s and women’s senior teams. This elite also fulfills a social function as role models when it comes to transmitting values such as fair-play, effort and diligence, or team-work. Winning games in the sold-out arenas of the men’s and women’s “A” teams is a reward in itself, but it also allows the DFB to meet the social obligations it has readily assumed as well as to provide service to more than 6.7 million members at the amateur level.

How important is the search for and schooling of talent for the DFB? Signing Matthias Sammer as the association’s Sports Director gives a very clear indication of what the DFB leadership had in mind. Like no other, the former European champion, honoured as Europe’s best player in 1996, embodies the association’s efforts for the footballing elite throughout Germany. Matthias Sammer joined the DFB in April 2006, successfully promoting and establishing his extensive concept for the support of talents. “Matthias Sammer gives our ideas a very strong identity”, says DFB President Dr Theo Zwanziger about Sammer, who has four German championships under his belt, three as a player, one as coach of Borussia Dortmund in the 2001/2002 season.

“The long road towards success”

Sammer’s concept entitled “The long road towards success” accounts for building up young players according to their age and talent level, with the first steps implemented in nursery school. Having fun and “jumping around” has priority for the approach adopted with 3-6 year-old children. “By no means will we try to get all these kids to play football, but every child should be physically active at this age.” Teaching the basic ball-handling skills, with a focus on competitive games, is the primary objective for the 7-11 year-olds. Teens aged 12-15 practise and improve their technical skills as a foundation for a more specialised training in the 16-19 age bracket. Building up stamina and physical strength is the main objective for the 20 and 21 year olds, preparing talented players for the tough challenges of professional football. The two subsequent phases focus on high-performance practice units and cycles. So much for the theoretical backbone of Matthias Sammer’s concept.

To put things into practise, the following support programmes have been launched:

20,000 plus: This qualification measure aims to educate 20,000 school teachers in conducting football training sessions in the gym and on the field. More than 20,000 schools throughout Germany received starter packages including balls and jersey sets. With a budget of € 25 millions, 1,000 so-called mini-pitches were built, mostly on school grounds – an unparalleled upgrade of public infrastructure

Talent promotion: Former DFB President Gerhard Mayer-Vorfelder initiated this wide-sweeping programme directed at talents between 11-17 years of age. The numbers are breathtaking: 387 training centres, more than 1,200 licenced coaches, and 29 full-time coordinators. More than 14,000 children and teenagers participate in the programme financed by the DFB to the tune of 10 million Euro

Elite football schools: The initiative started in 2006 and documents the DFB’s commitment. To receive the prestigious badge, schools need to fullfil 18 criteria

Club Academies: In order to obtain a licence in the professional leagues, every club is obliged to establish and operate its own Club Academy. Between 2007 and 2008 the German Football Association (DFB) and the German Football League (DFL) have upgraded youth programmes throughout German football. The academies are rated according to their overall quality, with three stars being the highest possible seal of quality. In addition, UEFA distributed to the clubs € 4 millions earmarked for that purpose. “The results are great. Most clubs do an outstanding job with their youth programmes”, says Holger Hieronymus, the DFL executive officer responsible for match operations, who mentions the careers of René Adler, Toni Kroos, Christian Pander, Roberto Hilbert and Serdar Tasci as proof of the great benefits derived from the scheme to date. The numbers are impressive, indeed, with the clubs spending € 61.6 millions on their youth programmes during the 2007/2008 season. “We feel delighted about this development”, says Helmut Sandrock, DFB director for youth football

Junior leagues: One other important step was the introduction of the A-junior league in 2003/04, followed by the B-junior league four years later. Both elite leagues now operate on a national level. “That makes sense to us, because our youth programmes have top priority in all our efforts. The DFB has been very much involved and committed to this effort”, said DFB President Dr Theo Zwanziger.

This bundle of measures has been blended and tied together by Matthias Sammer into a highly efficient and greatly successful system – from the U 15 all the way up to the U 21. “Really, we make no difference, starting with the U 15 up to the national team we have established the same basic conditions. The best players need to enjoy premium conditions. Because this is about the elite of German football. All teams operate on a firmly defined and consistent playing philosophy, an identical tactical system has been established from the U 15 to the U 17 teams. Every team has its own fitness coach and a sports psychologist. A goalkeeper’s coach as well as a group of trainers are all part of the standard set-up. Medical and coaching staff record player data during performance tests, which then make it possible to boost the ability of every player on a much more individual basis. Video analysis and a high standard of exercising equipment complete the hardware side of things.

Sammer: “Coaches are the key”

“Coaches are the key”, says Matthias Sammer, who is adamant about the importance of the coach in the overall scheme. “We have drastically changed and extended our coaches’ education programme. Coaches now need to study ten months to get the highest degree, allowing them to coach in the Bundesliga.”

Following the victory against England in the final of this year’s U21 European Championship, the German Football Association has raised the bar in 2009. DFB junior teams currently are defending champions at the U 17, U 19 and U 21 levels – a first in European juniors’ football. Coached by Horst Hrubesch, the German U 21 defeated the English team 4-0 in Malmö. The U 19 had ended a dry spell of 16 years for the German juniors by beating the Czech Republic 3-1 in the final of the European Championships in Italy. In May 2009, Germany’s U 17 won the European title in front of the home fans, beating the Netherlands 2-1, thanks to a magnificent free kick by Florian Trinks.

geregetan: VAKSIN aids … 270610

Filed under: Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 6:44 am

AIDS Vaccine
By ALICE PARK Tuesday, Dec. 08, 2009

RODGER BOSCH / AFP / GETTY

In a field that has seen more failure than success, experts received the news of an effective new AIDS vaccine with a fair share of skepticism. In September, a $105 million trial of a novel combination of two older vaccines was the first to show protection against HIV infection. The results of the trial, which involved more than 16,000 volunteers, suggested that the vaccine was 31% effective at preventing infection among those who were inoculated. It was a modest outcome, given that behavior-based prevention methods, like condom use, can be equally if not more effective. The volunteers were also largely heterosexual and monogamous, putting them at low-to-moderate risk for HIV infection — rather than high-risk, like intravenous drug users — and prompting questions about how impressive the results of the study really were. But given that no other inoculation has shown any effect against the AIDS virus, it was reason to celebrate — cautiously.

geregetan: skrining payudara gaya baru : 270610

Filed under: Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 6:38 am

New Mammography Guidelines
By ALICE PARK Tuesday, Dec. 08, 2009
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ROBERT LLEWELLYN / CORBIS

It usually takes a Washington scandal to put the discussion of women’s breasts on political agendas, but in November it was a routine update of breast-cancer-screening guidelines by a government panel of medical advisers that stirred up a furor. Based on new calculations weighing the risks and benefits of routine screening, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force’s new recommendations advised women to begin routine mammograms at age 50 instead of 40 and to switch from yearly to biennial screenings; it also advised women to eliminate breast self-exams altogether. Doctors, patients, cancer advocacy groups and politicians vehemently opposed the rolled-back recommendations, fearing they were a harbinger of health care rationing or that insurance companies would be tempted to stop covering screening in younger women. That concern was put to rest in December, however, when the Senate cast its first votes on health care reform, approving an amendment to guarantee coverage of mammograms and preventive screening tests.

geregetan: asam folat, B12 v. sakit jantunk beneran : 270610

Filed under: Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 6:24 am

Tuesday, Jun. 22, 2010
Study: Folic Acid, B12 Don’t Lower Heart-Disease Risks
By Alice Park
For decades, heart disease has retained the dubious honor of being the leading killer of Americans. So doctors have long been on the lookout for potential new factors that could help them identify and protect people who are at high risk of the disease.

One such promising factor was homocysteine, a naturally occurring amino acid that previous studies have linked to a higher risk of heart events and stroke. But researchers in the U.K. now close the book on the usefulness of the marker, finding in a new study that lowering patients’ blood levels of homocysteine did not in turn reduce their risk of heart trouble. (See TIME’s special on how to live 100 years.)

In the seven-year study of 12,064 heart-attack survivors, participants took daily supplements of folic acid and vitamin B12, which are known to break down homocysteine in the body. Although the supplementation lowered the amount of the amino acid in patients’ blood 28%, it had no effect on rates of heart events or stroke compared with people taking placebo pills. (Read about whether antidepressants really work or are just placebos.)

Researchers had believed that homocysteine, whose levels are determined by a combination of genetics and diet, affects a person’s heart risk by damaging the lining of blood vessels and promoting the formation of blood clots. So scientists have been eager to determine whether controlled B-vitamin supplementation would result in a difference in heart-disease rates in patients. The new study shows that it did not, but some experts say they are not surprised by the findings, noting that previous studies had hinted that folic-acid supplementation has little effect on heart-disease outcomes. (Read about how gene screens don’t help predict heart disease.)

“We’ve been through vitamin E, we’ve been through beta carotene, we’ve been through hormone-replacement therapy,” says Dr. Alice Lichtenstein, director of the cardiovascular-nutrition laboratory at Tufts University, referring to some of the most recent candidates for reducing heart-disease risk. “Unfortunately, now we’ve been through folate.”

Lichtenstein says it’s not clear exactly why lower levels of homocysteine in the study did not translate to lower heart risk but notes that the findings cast doubt on the direct influence of the compound on heart disease. If homocysteine itself were directly harmful to the heart, then lowering its levels would have had some beneficial effect on death and disease rates in the study, which it did not. It’s possible that homocysteine may instead be a marker for some other process that raises the risk of heart disease — one that is not influenced by folate. But the study was not designed to assess those mechanisms. “The only sound conclusion we can draw from this is that across the board, lowering of homocysteine with folate supplements does not result in improved cardiovascular outcomes,” says Lichtenstein.

She adds that we should expect more studies exploring the role of homocysteine in heart disease; if it is a marker for some other unknown risk factor, further study may expose potentially new ways of treating or even preventing heart conditions.

geregetan: kuman obesitas … 270610

Filed under: Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 6:12 am

Gut bacteria may affect your weight

Don’t go searching for a bacteria shake just yet — scientists are still investigating which bacteria do what in humans.

By Amber Dance, Special to the Los Angeles Times

June 21, 2010

advertisement

Something in your gut could be making you fat — and it isn’t just last night’s pizza.

The vast, diverse community of microbes inhabiting the intestines, scientists are finding, can influence metabolism and weight.

Between 10 trillion and 100 trillion microbes, mainly bacteria, dwell in a person’s colon and small intestine. They function together almost like another of the body’s organs, influencing, among other things, how many calories we extract from our food and whether we make or burn fat. Researchers have discovered significant links between gut bacteria and weight and metabolism in mice — and are starting to find similar associations in people.

The story in humans is far from certain, though, and scientists say it’s too soon to concoct microbe-filled “stay-slim” beverages — a fact that has not prevented some companies from promoting their bacteria-laden products as helpful for weight loss.

Bacteria that draw the maximum calories from our food would have been useful to our hunter-gatherer ancestors but are less beneficial for modern people eating an American fast-food diet. In addition to our ready access to high-calorie eats, the bacteria we carry around have changed, says Andrew Gewirtz, an immunologist at Emory University in Atlanta, through antibiotic use, improved hygiene and cleanliness in the food supply.

This, he believes, could be one environmental cause for obesity and related conditions such as diabetes.

On the whole, our gut bacteria are beneficial, says Ruth Ley, a microbial ecologist at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y. They prevent disease-causing bacteria from taking hold in our body simply by filling up all the available space. And they help us digest foods, such as some starches, that we cannot break down ourselves, producing vitamins and energy sources we can use.

“You might just generally be sicklier without them,” Ley says.

Babies are born bacteria-free but start to pick up bacteria during and after birth. Infants mostly collect bacteria from their mothers and others around them; in a sense, the gut community is inherited from family members. If the gut-obesity theory proved correct, that would suggest obesity risk could be passed along with them.

“If a person has changes in their gut bacteria — and that could be due to anything, to diet, to antibiotic use — if that person has kids, then they can transfer those gut bacteria and maybe transfer the problem,” Gewirtz says.

Because people pick up different bacteria from their environments, people have different gut communities. For example, in a study published in the journal Nature in April, scientists reported that some Japanese people could digest compounds in nori, the seaweed in sushi, because they hosted the right bacteria for the job.

Every person carries at least 160 different kinds of gut bacteria, scientists estimated in another Nature study published in March. Most fall into two divisions, or phyla: the bacteroidetes and the firmicutes. Both of these groups are found in soil and water as well as in animals. Some cause disease, but many in the intestine are beneficial. The firmicutes, in particular, are good at digesting our food. The more firmicutes in a person’s intestines, the more calories they can collect from a meal.

Obesity studies

This is where the obesity link comes in.

In 2005, Ley and colleagues at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, where she worked at the time, studied the gut bacteria found in mice, hoping to use them as a model to study obesity. They compared normal, lean mice with ones that were genetically obese because they had a mutation in the hormone leptin, which normally controls appetite and metabolism.

As in people, the main intestinal inhabitants of mice were bacteroidetes and firmicutes. But the researchers discovered that obese and lean mice had different proportions of each. In particular, fat mice tended to have more firmicutes, and fewer bacteroidetes, in their guts than lean mice.

In another study, Ley and colleagues worked with sterile mice that have no gut bacteria. These mice eat a lot, but don’t get fat, presumably because they don’t have the bacteria to extract the full complement of calories from their food. But when the scientists transferred the bacteria from fat mice to bacteria-free mice, the recipient mice gained weight. This result, reported in a 2006 Nature paper, directly suggests there’s something about the bacterial community in the obese mice that contributes to weight gain.

What about human beings? Ley and co-workers examined the proportion of firmicutes and bacteroidetes in 12 people, in a study they also reported in Nature in 2006. They examined bacteria samples from obese people as they followed a yearlong diet program. Before the diet, the subjects had more firmicutes and fewer bacteroidetes than healthy-weight people. As the year progressed and the dieting continued, the bacteroidetes numbers went up, and the firmicutes numbers went down.

In addition to squeezing every last available calorie out of the food we eat, bacteria can also influence metabolism by signaling the body to store fat or burn less of it, and slow down food moving through the intestine so there is more time to collect calories.

The exact nature of the bacterial signals that influence metabolism is unclear, but in a March article published in the journal Science, Gewirtz and his colleagues reported that bacteria can cause inflammation that alters appetite and weight.

Normally, the immune system and gut bacteria maintain a kind of peace, Gewirtz says. But the mutant mice in this experiment were not normal: They lacked a protein needed to keep bacteria in the intestine where they belong, and out of the bloodstream. In these mice, gut bacteria leak out of the intestines and cause inflammation as the immune system responds to the intruders.

That inflammation, the scientists found, altered the body’s sensitivity to insulin, a hormone that normally suppresses appetite and regulates blood sugar and fat storage. With the insulin system out of whack, the brain doesn’t receive the crucial “I’m full! Put the fork down!” signal it needs to stop us chowing down.

This, in turn, led to a sort of “pre-diabetes” condition in the mice — and by the time they were 20 weeks old, they weighed approximately 5 grams more than normal animals.

Gewirtz’s team took the bacteria from the fattened mice and transplanted them into sterile, nonmutant mice. These mice then gained weight. Again, it seemed like just having the wrong bacteria can pack on the pounds.

Scientists have plenty of data that gut bacteria affect weight in mice, but their understanding of the effects in humans remains hazy. For example, not all human studies have shown that firmicutes go hand-in-hand with obesity in people, cautions Margaret Zupancic, a microbial genomicist at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore.

In part, that is because it’s much more difficult to study people in a carefully controlled way. People, after all, are out and about in the world and have a variety of food and exercise regimes, unlike genetically similar mice living in identical cages eating identical mouse chow.

Another fact hampering scientific study is that intestinal bacteria are difficult to grow in a laboratory setting. Thus, scientists must study the entire community from stool samples and try their best to figure out from those which bacteria serve specific functions.

To get a better handle on the human situation, Zupancic and others are now working with people in a variety of settings, collecting stool samples to further analyze the human gut community and how it interacts with our genetics and lifestyles.

If certain bacterial communities do cause obesity in people, replacing the bad bacteria with the good ones seems like a possible route to weight loss. The idea is not wholly unprecedented. Doctors occasionally treat debilitating diarrhea with a transplant of bacteria from healthy stool, for example. And there is certainly evidence that products called probiotics (see the sidebar) may improve health via a spoonful or swig of bacteria-laden foods. Even simply changing your diet might sway the bacterial community in a different direction, Ley says.

Next steps

Gewirtz says that someday it might be possible to swap obesity-linked bacteria for skinny-jean microbes. But scientists caution that a nice bacterial cocktail is not the next big weight-loss drink.

For one thing, they don’t yet know what bacteria to use if they were to try and concoct such a drink. It is difficult to sort out the relationships between all the factors that lead to obesity, including diet, exercise, genetics — and now, possibly, bacterial inhabitants.

And then, for a bacterial-replacement therapy to really work, doctors would first need a way to get rid of less desirable bacteria already in residence in someone’s gastrointestinal tract. The right combination of antibiotics might do the job, Gewirtz says, but there are no well-defined methods for creating such a treatment.

Some companies, meanwhile, already are claiming that the right probiotics can slim you down. This month, researchers from the Japanese company Snow Brand Milk Products reported that people who drank a probiotic milk drink for 12 weeks lost weight. For their study, published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, they offered the probiotic drink or a bacteria-free concoction to 87 people. The subjects were slightly heavy, with an average BMI (body mass index) of 24.2. (A BMI of 25 and above is considered to be overweight.)

Over the course of the study, people drinking the probiotic lost an average of 1.5% of their BMI and, on average, 1.4% of their body weight.

That’s about 2 pounds for a 150-pound person.

geregetan: ngantuk, JEDA donk … 270610

Filed under: Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 6:04 am

latimes.com

The M.D.

Physician burnout affects patients too

About 40% of doctors experience job fatigue, a survey reveals.

By Valerie Ulene, Special to the Los Angeles Times

June 7, 2010

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My husband, Dave, works harder than anyone else I know. He often gets up so early — 3:30 or 4 a.m. — that I don’t even have a memory of him rising. Like me, Dave is a doctor.

He spends most of his day caring for patients at the hospital where he’s a pediatric orthopedic surgeon but manages to find time to write research papers, teach medical students and residents, and serve on a variety of hospital committees. And he wouldn’t give up any of it.

Dave simply loves his job. After 20 years in medicine, he still feels it’s a privilege to care for people. Not all physicians are so fortunate, however; many ultimately burn out.

Burnout doesn’t just create professional, and personal, problems for physicians — it affects patients too.

Obviously, extreme job fatigue isn’t a physician-only problem, but in the medical profession, physician performance can truly be a matter of life and death. And research suggests that doctors suffer from high rates of the condition.

In 2009, researchers at Johns Hopkins University surveyed almost 8,000 surgeons and found that approximately 40% were burned out in their jobs; studies of doctors working in primary care medicine reveal comparable rates.

Some doctors become so disillusioned with their careers that they opt to leave medicine entirely. After the years of training required to become a doctor — seven years for pediatricians, for example, 11 years for cardiothoracid surgeons — it’s hard to imagine that someone would quit. But, in fact, rates of attrition among doctors are surprisingly high. A recent survey conducted by the American College of Physicians and the American Board of Internal Medicine found that 17% of general internists are no longer working in their field of practice about a decade after their original certification.

Sometimes a doctor’s lack of interest in the profession will have an immediate effect; at other times, inattention and a tendency to go through the emotions will take a more insidious toll. Perhaps a patient’s high blood pressure will be less well-controlled than it should be; perhaps potentially dangerous side effects will go unnoticed; perhaps lifestyle advice will be skipped. In any case, patients pay part of the price for doctor burnout.

Empty tank

The term “burnout” is often used to describe the attitude of anyone who’s tired of their job. But burnout is more than simply dreading the idea of going to work each day — it’s a syndrome with several distinct characteristics. People who burn out at work describe feeling emotionally exhausted, stretched beyond what they can possibly do.

“It’s like a tank that’s been drained and there’s nothing left,” says Christina Maslach, a social psychologist at UC Berkeley and co-author of “Banishing Burnout.”

Emotional exhaustion is just the tip of the iceberg — it’s how people feel and what they do when they’re exhausted that distinguishes burnout from simply being tired of one’s job. People who burn out tend to become cynical; they question both the importance of their work and their ability to do their job well.

Then there’s the matter of drive. Burnout causes people to lose their focus on the job.

“They may shift from doing their very best to doing the bare minimum,” says Maslach.

Being a physician is undoubtedly emotionally exhausting work. It’s stressful and demanding on many levels. Doctors are under constant pressure to deliver outstanding care to their patients. These days that involves far more than sharp diagnostic skills. Doctors can’t just be competent; they need to be compassionate, supportive and respectful of their patients’ preferences too. To do their job well, doctors must be active listeners and good communicators; they need to be able to bridge cultural differences and navigate language barriers.

Physicians also have to work collaboratively with their patients and involve them in the decision-making process. Many might look back with fondness on the days of issuing orders — brusquely or not — and expecting patients to follow them.

Even under the best circumstances, today’s expectations create a tall order to fill, and many doctors work in settings where it’s almost impossible to do so.

In some cases, doctors don’t have the resources to do their job properly; in others, they’re hampered by almost insurmountable barriers. Hospitals and insurance companies can impose constraints that interfere with physicians’ ability to provide necessary medical services; busy office schedules can prevent them from having sufficient time with their patients.

Eventually, work strain and lack of adequate workplace support wear down many doctors and undermine their physical and emotional health. Burnout can trigger headaches, disrupt sleep, and contribute to a variety of mental health problems, including anxiety, depression and alcohol and drug addiction. On a personal level, burnout damages relationships and interferes with job satisfaction.

Endangered patients

Patients cared for by physicians who are burned out tend to be less satisfied with their care than those who are tended to by doctors more engaged in their work.

Of greater concern, however, than a disengaged attitude is that burned-out doctors may be more likely to make mistakes.

A study published earlier this year in the Journal of the American Medical Assn. found that internal medicine residents suffering from high levels of stress and fatigue were more likely to report making medical errors. A similar study appearing in the Annals of Surgery in 2009 found that burnout had the same effect among surgeons.

There’s no clear-cut way for patients to determine whether their physician is suffering from burnout. Beyond avoiding doctors who come across as frankly disinterested or overtly cynical, there’s little that they can do except trust their intuition.

As for my husband, the way he feels about his job is obvious to almost everyone. It’s apparent in the compassion he shows his patients and their families and in the smile he wears on his face. It’s the way he gets out of bed, however, that is perhaps most telling. Regardless of the hour, he’s eager to start his day.

He’s living proof that burnout isn’t simply about working hard.

Ulene is a board-certified specialist in preventive medicine practicing in Los Angeles.

geregetan: mimpi seorang penkankgur … 270610

Filed under: Medicine — bumi2009fans @ 5:59 am

Minggu, 27/06/2010 11:35 WIB
Mimpi Buruk Lebih Sering Terjadi Saat Depresi dan Menganggur
AN Uyung Pramudiarja – detikHealth
Beijing, Mimpi bukan sekedar bunga tidur, kadang-kadang juga berkaitan dengan kesehatan fisik, mental dan bahkan sosial. Sebab menurut penelitian, mimpi buruk lebih banyak terjadi pada kondisi tertentu misalnya depresi atau tidak punya pekerjaan.

Dikutip dari Dailymail, Minggu (27/6/2010), mimpi buruk merupakan mimpi menakutkan yang membuat seseorang terbangun saat berada dalam fase rapid eye movement (REM). Pada fase tersebut, aktivitas otak berada di level paling tinggi.

Penelitian yang dilakukan para psikiater di China terhadap 9.000 orang dewasa menunjukkan, 5,1 persen mengalami mimpi buruk sedikitnya sekali dalam sepekan. Wanita lebih sering mengalaminya yakni 6,2 persen, dibandingkan pria yang hanya 3,8 persen.

Gangguan kejiwaan seperti depresi 5 kali lebih banyak dialami oleh pria maupun wanita yang sering mimpi buruk. Seorang dengan kepribadian neurotik yang cenderung berpikiran negatif juga lebih banyak mengalami mimpi seram.

Sebaliknya, mimpi buruk juga bisa memicu gangguan kesehatan seperti insomnia, sakit kepala, rasa penat, dan sulit bangun pagi. Bahkan risiko gangguan kejiwaan (psychiatric disorder) meningkat 5,7 kali lipat pada orang yang sering mengalami mimpi buruk.

Menurut penelitian tersebut, mimpi seram juga erat kaitannya dengan kesejahteraan. Pengangguran dan karyawan dengan gaji rendah punya peluang 2,3 kali lipat lebih besar untuk mengalami mimpi buruk sebanyak 3 kali atau lebih dalam sepekan, dibandingkan karyawan yang relatif lebih makmur.

Sedangkan 7 kategori mimpi buruk yang paling populer dalam penelitian tersebut adalah sebagai berikut:
Mimpi jatuh (39,5 persen)
Mimpi dikejar-kejar (25,7 persen)
Mimpi lumpuh atau tidak bisa bergerak (25,3 persen)
Mimpi terlambat menghadiri suatu acara (24 persen)
Mimpi orang terdekat meninggal dunia (20,9 persen)
Memimpikan film horor (18,9 persen)
Mimpi tidak bisa menyelesaikan pekerjaan (17,3 persen).
(up/ir)

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